article/article.tpl

The use of a high-fidelity simulation manikin in teaching clinical skills to fourth year undergraduate pharmacy students

Nicholas Haddington, Lyn Hanning, Marjorie Weiss, Denise Taylor

Abstract

Background: A relatively new development in simulation-based teaching in healthcare education is the use of simulation manikins. While these have been used to teach clinical skills in various health disciplines, little has been reported on their use in UK undergraduate pharmacy programmes.

Aims: To investigate the use of a simulation manikin to teach clinical skills to undergraduate pharmacy students.

Method: A fourth year unit was developed to teach clinical skills to undergraduate pharmacists, including communication, consultation skills, clinical decision making and physical examination. A pre- and post-unit questionnaire was used to gather data relating to student confidence, self rated competence and student experience.

Results: Student confidence and self-rated competence in key clinical skills increased significantly. High levels of acceptability for this teaching method were reported.

Conclusion: This method of teaching clinical skills is effective and highly acceptable to undergraduate pharmacy students. Further research is necessary to compare this to other methods. 


Keywords

Simulation, SimMan®, Clinical Skills, Undergraduate, Pharmacy


Full Text:

PDF

References

Black, P. & Wiliam, D. (1998) Assessment and Classroom Learning. Assessment in Education: Principles. Policy & Practice, 5 (1), 7-74.

Bokken, L., Rethans, J.J., van Heurn, L., Duvivier, R., Scherpbier, A. & van der Vleuten, C. (2009) Students' Views on the Use of Real Patients and Simulated Patients in Undergraduate Medical Education. Academic Medicine, 84(7), 958-963.

Chapman, S.R. & Bracegirdle, L. (2010) Programmable Patients: Simulation and consultation skills for virtual environment. Bio-algorithms and Med-Systems, 6(11), 111-115.

Ericsson, K.A (2004) Deliberate practice and the acquisition and maintenance of expert performance in medicine and related domains. Academic Medicine, 79(10, Suppl.), S70–S81.

General Pharmaceutical Council (2011) Future pharmacists: Standards for the initial education and training of pharmacists.

Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to teaching and learning methods. Further Education Unit. Oxford Polytechnic: Oxford.

Harasim, L. (1989) Online education: a new domain. In Mindwave: communication, computers and distant education (eds. R. Mason & A. Kaye), Oxford: Pergamon Press.

Harden, R.M., Stamper, N. (1999) What is a spiral curriculum? Medical Teacher, 21, 141–143.

Hatala, R., Issenberg, S.B., Kassen, B., Cole, G., Bacchus, C.M. & Scalese, R.J. (2008) Assessing cardiac physical examination skills using simulation technology and real patients: a comparison study. Medical Education, 42(6), 628-636.

Issenberg, S.B., McGaghie, W.C., Hart, I.R., Mayer, J.W., Felner, J.M., Petrusa, E.R., Waugh, R.A., Brown, D.D., Safford, R.R., Gessner, I.H., Gordon, D.L. & Ewy, G.A. (1999) Simulation technology for health care professional skills training and assessment. Journal of the American Medical Association , 282(9), 861–866.

Issenberg, S.B., McGaghie, W.C., Petrusa, E.R., Gordon, D.L. & Scalese, R.J. (2005) Features and uses of high-fidelity medical simulations that lead to effective learning: a BEME systematic review. Medical Teacher, 27(1), 10–28.

Issenberg, S.B. & Scalese, R.J. (2008) Simulation in health care education. Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 51(1), 31-46.

Kluger, A.N. & DeNisi, A. (1996) The effects of feedback interventions on performance: a historical review, a meta- analysis, and a preliminary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254-284.

Lee, A. & Berge, Z. (2011) Second Life in Healthcare Education: Virtual Environment's Potential to Improve Patient Safety. Knowledge Management and E-Learning: An International Journal, 3(1), 17-23.

Mangione, S. & Nieman, L.Z. (1997) Cardiac auscultatory skills of internal medicine and family practice trainees: a comparison of diagnostic proficiency. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278, 717–22.

Moore, M.G. (1992) Distance education theory. American Journal of Distance Education, 5(3), 1-6.

Pugh, C.M. & Youngblood, P. (2002) Development and Validation of Assessment Measures for a Newly Developed Physical Examination Simulator. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 9(5), 448-460.

Ramaprasad, A. (1998) On the definition of feedback. Behavioral Science, 28, 4-13.

Reape, A., Lips-Nassif, C., Bailey, L., Ashwell, P. & Brown, D. (2011) The use of human patient simulators for teaching UK pharmacy students about critical care. Pharmacy Education, 11 (1), 1-7.

Rehmann, A., Mitman, R. & Reynolds, M. (1995) A handbook of flight simulation fidelity requirements for human factors research. Technical Report no. DOT/FAA/CT-TN96/46. Wright -Patterson AFB, OH: Crew Systems Ergonomics Information Analysis Center.

Rosen, K.R. (2008) The history of medical simulation. Journal of Critical Care, 23, 157-166.

Rudolph, J., Simon, R., Dufresne, R. & Raemer, D. (2006) There's no such thing as nonjudgmental debriefing: a theory and method for debriefing with good judgement. Simulation in Healthcare, 1(1), 49-55.

Seybert, A.L., Laughlin, K.K., Benedict, N.J., Barton, C.M. & Rea, R.S. (2006) Pharmacy Student Response to Patient- Simulation Mannequins to Teach Performance-based Pharmacotherapeutics. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(3), 48.

Simon, R., Raemer, D.B. & Rudolph, J.W. (2009) Debriefing Assessment for Simulation in Healthcare – Rater Version. Cambridge, MA Center for Medical Simulation.

Tuckman, B.W. (1965) Developmental sequence in small groups. Psychological Bulletin, 63, 384-399.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
article/comments.tpl article/footer.tpl