Stocking and dispensing of veterinary medicines by pharmacists in Ghana

Anthony Amalba, Baba Sulemana Mohammed, Evans Paul Kwame Ameade, Eric Woode


Introduction: Good animal healthcare systems require the use of quality veterinary pharmaceuticals handled by knowledgeable and qualified personnel. This study assessed the level of involvement of Ghanaian pharmacists in the stocking and dispensing of veterinary pharmaceuticals.

Method: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted through the use of a semi-structured questionnaire administered to pharmacists at their Annual General Meetings in Kumasi, Ghana between 12th and 18th August, 2013. Data were analysed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences, version 18 (SPSS© Inc, IBM, Chicago, IL, USA) and GraphPad 5.01 (GraphPad Software Inc.©, San Diego CA). Association between different variables was tested.

Results: Of the 200 questionnaires administered, 69 were completed which showed a response rate of 34.5%. There was limited involvement of pharmacists (7.2%) in the stocking and dispensing of veterinary pharmaceuticals in Ghana, although the majority (72.5%) considered it necessary for pharmacies to stock such products. Pharmacists considered lack of knowledge as the greatest factor limiting their role in the handling of animal drugs in their pharmacies.

Conclusion: Stocking and dispensing of veterinary pharmaceuticals in Ghanaian pharmacies is limited. The pharmacists in this survey suggested lack of adequate knowledge on veterinary pharmacy was hindering their ability to provide healthcare services to animals in their pharmacies. There is therefore the need for the Pharmacy Council of Ghana and the pharmacy training institutions in Ghana to include veterinary pharmacy in their curriculum and provide opportunities for practicing pharmacists to upgrade their knowledge. 


Veterinary Pharmacy, Pharmacists, Veterinary Pharmaceuticals, Ghana

Full Text:



Bett, B., Machila, N., Gathura, P.B., McDermott, J.J. & Eisler, M.C. (2004). Characterisation of shops selling veterinary medicines in a tsetse-infested area of Kenya. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 63(1-2), 29 – 38.

Food and Drugs Act. (1992). Food and Drugs Act, Ghana, Ch. 51, Accra: Assembly Press.

Grasswitz, T.R., Leyland, T.J., Musiime, J.T., Owens S.J. & Sones, K.R. (eds). (2004). The veterinary pharmaceutical industry in Africa: a study of Kenya, Uganda and South Africa. African Union/ Interafrican Bureau for Animal Resources (AU/IBAR), Nairobi, Kenya.

Hassane, H.M. (2013). The promotion of the Livestock Industry for food security in Africa and Arab countries (online). Available at: http://www. Document_Repository/229/2_The%20Promotion%20of %20the%20Livestock%20Industry%20for%20Food%20Security%20in%20Africa%20and%20Arab%20 countries-Hassane%20Mahamat.pdf. Accessed on 13th January, 2017.

Justin-Temu, M., Mwambete, K.D. & Willard, T.E. (2009). The role of the pharmacist in Animal Health care: Case study IlalaDistrick, Dar es Salaam. East and Central African journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 12, 34-36.

Maddox, G. (2006). Sub-Saharan Africa: an environmental history. ABC-CLIO (online). Available at: =&id= JFSSMeNTAVkC&oi=fnd&pg=PR7&dq=Maddox,+G. +2006+Sub-Saharan+Africa:+an+environmental+history. +Santa+Barbara,+CA:+ABC-Clio&ots=60DYw0Op MC&sig=nwTt98Ec4HB5nof-W6-FExVZVM8&redir_ esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false. Accessed on 13th January, 2017.

Matema, S., Gavaza, P. & Maponga, C.C. (2005). Pilot Study of the Role of Pharmacists in the Use of Veterinary Pharmaceutical Products in Harare and Chitungwiza, Zimbabwe. East and Central African Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8(3), 50-53.

Moghimi, H.R. (2010). Veterinary Pharmacy, a Dismissed Necessity. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 227-229.

Monie, O.R., Byrant, C.E. & Skelly, B.J. (2006). Survey of pharmacists’ awareness of veterinary medicines. Veterinary Record. doi:10.1136/vr.158.7.223

Perry, B. & Grace, D. (2009). The impacts of livestock diseases and their control on growth and development processes that are pro-poor. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 364(1530), 2643-2655.

Pharmacy Act. (1994). Pharmacy Act, Ghana 489: Ch. 36, Accra: Assembly Press.


  • There are currently no refbacks.
article/comments.tpl article/footer.tpl