article/article.tpl

The Development of Excellence in Pharmaceutical Knowledge: New Curriculum for the B.Sc. (Pharmacy) Studies

Nina Katajavuori, Jouni Hirvonen, Sari Lindblom-Ylänne

Abstract

Reflective action is an important factor in the learning process and life-long learning. Enhancing the development of students’ metacognitive skills should be an important goal in the implementation of pharmacy education. In Finland, a new curriculum for B.Sc. (Pharmacy) studies was designed to meet the expectations of working life and form a solid base for the development of pharmaceutical expertise and life-long learning. The new curriculum was especially aimed at integrating theoretical knowledge with practice and fostering students’ learning and deep-level under- standing. The selection criteria of the students and the structure of the curriculum were developed from the traditional curriculum. The active role of the students was increased with different learning tasks. This follow-up study was designed to evaluate the success- fulness of the new curriculum and to explore students’ expectations and realization of them during their studies. As a whole, the implementation of the new curriculum succeeded well. The results, however, clearly indicated that certain areas should be developed further. Attention should be paid as to how to promote the active role and motivation of students. Only by understanding the multiple dimensions of learning and teaching and by seeing the university teaching as a holistic phenomenon can it be possible to increase the quality of higher education and produce pharmacy experts who are likely to succeed in and act as active developers of the ever-changing working life.


Keywords

Curriculum; Life-long learning; Metacognitive skills; Motivation; Pharmacy education


Full Text:

PDF

References

Alderman, M.K. (1999) Motivation for Achievement. Possibilities for Teaching and Learning (Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., New Jersey).

Barron, K. and Harackiewicz, J. (2000) “Achievement goals and optimal motivation: a multiple goals approach”, In: Sansome, C. and Harackiewicz, J., eds, Intrinsic and Extrinsic Motivation. The Search for Optimal Motivation and Performance (Academic Press, New York), pp 229–254.

Beaty, L., Gibbs, G. and Morgan, A. (1997) “Learning orientations and study contracts”, In: Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N., eds, The experience of learning. Implications for teaching and studying in higher education, 2nd Ed. (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh), pp 72–86.

Beishuizen, J., Stouthesdijk, E. and van Putten, K. (1994) “Studying textbooks: effects of learning styles, study task, and instruction”, Learning and Instruction 4, 151–174.

Biggs, J. (1999) Teaching for Quality Learning at University (Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, Suffolk, UK).

Bowden, J. and Marton, F. (1998) The University of Learning— Beyond Quality and Competence in Higher Education (Kogan Page, London).

Brown, J.S., Collins, A. and Duguid, P. (1989) “Situated cognition and the culture of learning”, Educational Research 18, 32–42.

Brown, G., Bull, J. and Pendlebury, M. (1997) Assessing Students Learning in Higher Education (Routledge, London).

Butler, R. (2000) “What learners want to know: the role of achievement goals in shaping information seeking, learning and interest”, In: Sansome, C. and Harackiewicz, J., eds, Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The search for optimal motivation and performance (Academic Press, New York), pp 161–194.

Chi, M. (1997) “Quantifying qualitative analyses of verbal data: a practical guide”, The Journal of the Learning Sciences 6, 271 – 315.

Cowan, J. (1998) On Becoming an Innovative University Teacher—Reflection in Action (The Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press, London), pp 34–45.

Crawford, K., Gordon, S., Nicholas, J. and Prosser, M. (1998) “Qualitatively different experiences of learning mathematics at university”, Learning and Instruction 8, 455–468.

Do ̈rnyei, Z. (2000) “Motivation in action: Towards a process- oriented conceptualisation of student motivation”, British Journal of Educational Psychology 70, 519–538.

Entwistle, N.J. (1981) Styles of Learning and Teaching: An Integrated Outline of Educational Psychology for Students, Teachers and Lectures (Wiley, Chichester), p 1981.

Glaser, R. (1991) “The maturing of the relationship between the science of learning and cognition and educational practice”, Learning and Instruction 1, 129–144.

Godfrey, R.C. (1995) “Undergraduate examinations—a continuing tyranny”, The Lancet 345, 765–767.

Hounsell, D. (1997) “Understanding teaching and teaching for understanding”, In: Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N., eds, The Experience of Learning. Implications for Teaching and Studying in Higher Education, 2nd Ed. (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh), pp 238–257.

Hyvonen, S. and La ̈ hdevuori, M. (2001) Selvitys farmasian opetuksen ja tutkintojen tilasta seka ̈ uudistamisesta Helsingin yliopiston farmasian laitoksella (in Finnish). University of Helsinki.

IPSF (2003, 21st May) Good Pharmaceutical Education Practice [Online]. Available: www.ipsf.org.

Katajavuori, N., Valtonen, S., Pietila ̈, K., Pekkonen, O., Lindblom- Yla ̈nne, S. and Airaksinen, M. (2002) “Myths behind the patient counselling; a patient counselling study of non- prescription medicines in Finland”, Journal of Social Adminis- trative Pharmacy 19, 129–136.

Kause, J. (2002) “Kun 120 opintoviikkoa on plakkarissa”, Farmasian Pa ̈iva ̈t, 15.–17.11.2002; (Yliopistopaino, Helsinki), (Abstract book, in Finnish), pp 148–150.

Knowles, M.J. (1984) The Adult Learner: A Neglected Species, 3rd Ed. (Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, TX).

Lindblom-Yla ̈nne, S. (1999) Studying in a Traditional Medical Curriculum—Study Success, Orientations to Studying and Problems that Arise (Helsinki University Printing House, Helsinki).

Lonka, K. and Lindblom-Yla ̈ nne, S. (1996) “Epistemologies, conceptions of learning and study practices in medicine and psychology”, Higher Education 31, 5–24.

Lonka, K., Lindblom-Yla ̈nne, S., Nieminen, J. and Hakkarainen, K. (2001) Conceptions of learning and personal epistemologies: are they intertwined? A paper presented at the 9th EARLI (European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction Conference), Fribourg, Switzerland, August 28–September 1, 2001.

Loponen, M. (2002). Farmaseuttien alalta poistuminen (in Finnish). Research Reports 3, University of Kuopio, Centre for Training and Development.

Narhi, U. (2001) Implementing the Philosophy of Pharmaceutical Care into Community Pharmacy Services—Experience with Asthma Patients in Finland (Kuopio University Publications A, Pharmaceutical Sciences 54, Kuopio, Finland).

Nieminen, J., Lindblom-Yla ̈nne, S. and Lonka, K. (2003) The development of study orientations and study success in students of pharmacy—a longitudinal study, Submitted for Publication.

Nonaka, I. and Takeuchi, H. (1995) The Knowledge-creating Company (Oxford University Press, New York).

Pedley, G.E. and Arber, A. (1997) “Nursing students’ responses to self-directed learning: an evaluation of a learning process applying Jarvis’ framework”, Journal of Advanced Nursing 25, 405 – 411.

Priest, H., Roberts, P. and Woods, L. (2002) “An overview of three different approaches to the interpretation of qualitative data. Part 1: theoretical issues”, Nurse Researcher 10, 30–43.

Prosser, M. and Trigwell, K. (1999) Understanding Learning and Teaching. The Experience in Higher Education (Open University Press and the Society for Research into Higher Education, Suffolk, UK).

Purdie, N. and Hattie, J. (1995) “The effect of motivation training on approaches to learning and self-concept”, British Journal of Educational Psychology 65, 227–235.

Rajama ̈ ki, H., Katajavuori, N., Ja ̈ rvinen, P., Hakuli, T., Tera ̈ salmi, E. and Pietila ̈, K. (2002) “A qualitative study of the difficulties of the smoking cessation; Healthcare professionals’ and smokers’ points of view”, Pharmacy World and Science 24, 247 – 255.

Ramsden, P. (1997) “The context of learning in academic departments”, In: Marton, F., Hounsell, D. and Entwistle, N., eds, The Experience of Learning. Implications for Teaching and Studying in Higher Education, 2nd Ed. (Scottish Academic Press, Edinburgh), pp 198–216.

Riveiro, J., Cabanach, R. and Arias, A. (2001) “Multiple-goal pursuit and its relation to cognitive, self-regulatory, and motivational strategies”, British Journal of Educational Psycho- logy 71, 561–572.

Savela, E. (2003) Ammattitaidon ylla ̈pita ̈minen apteekissa. Farmaseuttien ja proviisoreiden kouluttautuminen normiteorian viitekehyksesta ̈ (Kuopio University Publications A, Pharma- ceutical Sciences 62, Kuopio, Finland), (in Finnish, English abstract).

Schlommer, R.S., Anderson, M.A. and Shaw, R. (1997) “Teaching strategies and knowledge retention”, Journal for Nurses in Staff Development—JNSD 13, 249–253.

Sihvo, S. and Hemminki, E. (1999) “Self medication and health habits in the management of upper gastrointestinal symp- toms”, Patient Education and Counselling 37, 55–63.

Sihvo, S., Ahonen, R., Mikander, H. and Hemminki, E. (2000) “Self- medication with vaginal antifungal drugs: physicians’ experiences and women’s utilization patterns”, Family Practice 17, 145–149.

Staudinger, U. (1996) “Wisdom and the social-interactive foundation of the mind”, In: Baltes, P.B. and Staudinger, U.M., eds, Interactive Minds. Life-span Perspectives on the Social Foundation Cognition (Cambridge University Press, New York), pp 276–315.

Vermunt, J. (1998) “The regulation of constructive learning processes”, British Journal of Educational Psychology 68, 149 – 171.

van der Vleuten, C.P. (1996) “The assessment of professional competence: developments, research, and practical impli- cations”, Advances in Health Science Education 1, 41–67.

Weinstein, C.E. and Meyer, D.K. (1994) “Learning strategies, teaching and testing”, In: Husen, T. and Postlethwaite, T.N., eds, The International Encyclopedia of Education, 2nd Ed. (Pergamon Press, Oxford), pp 3335–3340.

Zapp, L. (2001) “Use of multiple teaching strategies in the staff development setting”, Journal for Nurses in Staff Development— JNSD 17, 206–212.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
article/comments.tpl article/footer.tpl