RESEARCH ARTICLE: The effect of generic medicines e-learning course via Web 2.0 tools on knowledge of pharmacists and pharmacy students

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2021.211.679689

Keywords:

Arab World, EdTech, Educational Technology, E-learning, Online Learning, Pharmacy Education, Social Media, Web 2.0

Abstract

Background: Research scoping on e-learning and novel web 2.0 tools in pharmacy education in Arabic Language Speaking Countries (ALSCs) is scarce.    

Aim and methods: Therefore, this study aimed to develop an online educational course on generic medicines to reveal the views of Arab pharmacists and pharmacy students about emerging technologies in transferring pharmaceutical knowledge and assess the differences in knowledge scores before and after the online educational intervention and the differences in knowledge scores among study subgroups.    

Results: The total mean knowledge score after attending the online educational intervention significantly increased, from 4.9±1.68 to 7.75±1.75 (t(86) = 4.6, p<0.001). Providing an online course using web 2.0 tools to transfer pharmaceutical knowledge was viewed as highly positive (mean score = 62.23±6.08, range 45-75 points). Significant sex and status differences were identified post-assessment. Female participants and pharmacists had higher knowledge scores compared with males and students, respectively.    

Conclusion: The online course development was successfully implemented using Schoology as an online learning management system (LMS) and Facebook as a social network site (SNS). Arab pharmacists and pharmacy students found e-learning and web 2.0 tools to be effective novel technologies in transferring pharmaceutical knowledge.

Author Biographies

Ramez M. Alkoudmani, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia

Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy

Ramadan M. Elkalmi, University of Sebha, Sebha, Libya

Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine

Mohamed Azmi Hassali, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Penang, Malaysia

Department of Social and Administrative Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy

Jennifer Apolinário-Hagen, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf, Germany

Institute of Occupational, Social and Environmental Medicine, Faculty of Medicine

References

Abdelhai, R., Yassin, S., Ahmad, M. F., & Fors, U. G. (2012). An e-learning reproductive health module to support improved student learning and interaction: a prospective interventional study at a medical school in Egypt. BMC medical education, 12(1), 11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-12-11

Abdulla, D. (2012). Attitudes of college students enrolled in 2-year health care programs towards online learning. Computers & Education, 59(4), 1215-1223. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2012.06.006

Alkoudmani, R. M., & Elkalmi, R. M. (2015). Challenges to web-based learning in pharmacy education in Arabic language speaking countries. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 6(3), 41. https://doi.org/10.4103/2045-080X.160989

Alkoudmani, R. M., Elkalmi, R. M., Apolinário-Hagen, J., Alkhoshaiban, A. S., & Al-Essa, R. K. (2021). Pharmacists’ Familiarity with E-learning in Transferring Pharmaceutical Knowledge in the Arab World. Archives of Pharmacy Practice, 1, 34. https://doi.org/10.51847/PgKZyJJYvF

Andrew, L., Ewens, B., Maslin-Prothero, S. (2015). Enhancing the online learning experience using virtual interactive classrooms. Australian Journal of Advanced Nursing, 32(4), 22-31.

Babiker, M. (2014). CHALLENGES AND FUTURE OF E-LEARNING IN THE ARAB WORLD. INTED2014 Proceedings, 5156-5165.

Basak, S. K., Wotto, M., & Bélanger, P. (2016). A framework on the critical success factors of e-learning implementation in higher education: A review of the literature. Int. J. Educ. Pedagog. Sci, 10(7), 2409-2414.

Bollmeier, S. G., Wenger, P. J., Forinash, A. B., & Gleason, B. L. (2011). Impact of an online self-paced lecture to teach primary literature evaluation to second professional year students. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 3(2), 148-153. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2011.01.001

Bradshaw, M., & Lowenstein, A. (2013). Innovative teaching strategies in nursing and related health professions: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

Cameron, A., & Laing, R. (2010). Cost savings of switching private sector consumption from originator brand medicines to generic equivalents. World health report, 35, 210-215.

Conte, N. (2012). Pharmacists attitudes toward using the internet to satisfy their continuing education needs: An exploratory study. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 4(3), 180-187. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2012.04.010

Crouch, M. A. (2009). An advanced cardiovascular pharmacotherapy course blending online and face-to-face instruction. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 73(3). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj730351

DiVall, M. V., Hayney, M. S., Marsh, W., Neville, M. W., O’Barr, S., Sheets, E. D., & Calhoun, L. D. (2013). Perceptions of Pharmacy Students, Faculty Members, and Administrators on the Use of Technology in the Classroom. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 77(4). https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77475

Gadbury-Amyot, C. C., & Brockman, W. G. (2011). Transition of a traditional pharmacology course for dental students to an online delivery format: a pilot project. Journal of dental education, 75(5), 633-645. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77475

Garcia, L. S., Amat, S. S., Garcia, N. M., & Colomina, S. S. (2018). Schoology as an alternative to traditional teaching tools for university students. Paper presented at the 10th International Conference on Education and New Learning Technologies. https://doi.org/10.21125/edulearn.2018.1754

Gerdprasert, S., Pruksacheva, T., Panijpan, B., & Ruenwongsa, P. (2010). Development of a web-based learning medium on mechanism of labour for nursing students. Nurse education today, 30(5), 464-469. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2009.10.007

González-Gómez, F., Guardiola, J., Rodríguez, Ó. M., & Alonso, M. Á. M. (2012). Gender differences in e-learning satisfaction. Computers & Education, 58(1), 283-290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2011.08.017

Hall, D. L., Corman, S. L., Drab, S. R., Smith, R. B., & Meyer, S. M. (2010). Application of a technology-based instructional resource in diabetes education at multiple schools of pharmacy: evaluation of student learning and satisfaction. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 2(2), 108-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2010.01.007

Hassali MA, e. a. (2012). Understanding Generic Medicines: What Health Care Professionals Should Know. Malaysia: Kotra Pharma.

Huynh, R. (2017). The role of E-learning in medical education. Academic Medicine, 92(4), 430-430. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001596

Joshua, J. N., Swastika, I. P. A., & Estiyanti, N. M. (2016). The effectiveness of e-learning implementation using social learning network schoology on motivation & learning achievement. Jurnal Nasional Pendidikan Teknik Informatika: JANAPATI, 5(1), 28-33. https://doi.org/10.23887/janapati.v5i1.9914

Karaksha, A., Grant, G., Anoopkumar-Dukie, S., Nirthanan, S. N., & Davey, A. K. (2013). Student engagement in pharmacology courses using online learning tools. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 77(6). https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe776125

Kheir, N., Zaidan, M., Younes, H., El Hajj, M., Wilbur, K., & Jewesson, P. J. (2008). Pharmacy education and practice in 13 Middle Eastern countries. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 72(6). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7206133

Koch, J., Andrew, S., Salamonson, Y., Everett, B., & Davidson, P. M. (2010). Nursing students’ perception of a web-based intervention to support learning. Nurse education today, 30(6), 584-590. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2009.12.005

Lee, L. A., Wang, S. L., Chao, Y. P., Tsai, M. S., Hsin, L. J., Kang, C. J., Fu, C. H., Chao, W. C., Huang, C. G., Li, H. Y., & Chuang, C. K. (2018). Mobile Technology in E-Learning for Undergraduate Medical Education on Emergent Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery Disorders: Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR medical education, 4(1), e8. https://doi.org/10.2196/mededu.9237

Lewis, K. O., Cidon, M. J., Seto, T. L., Chen, H., & Mahan, J. D. (2014). Leveraging e-learning in medical education. Current problems in pediatric and adolescent health care, 44(6), 150-163. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cppeds.2014.01.004

Meckfessel, S., Stühmer, C., Bormann, K. H., Kupka, T., Behrends, M., Matthies, H., Vaske, B., Stiesch, M., Gellrich, N. C., & Rücker, M. (2011). Introduction of e-learning in dental radiology reveals significantly improved results in final examination. Journal of cranio-maxillo-facial surgery, 39(1), 40-48. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcms.2010.03.008

Mohamed Azmi H, Z. S., Fahad S, Maryam F, Hisham A. (2012). Assessment of Student's Perceptions Towards E-learning Management System (ELMS) In A Malaysia Pharmacy School: A Descriptive Study. Malaysian Journal of Public Health Medicine, 12(1), 14-20.

Öztürk, D., & Dinç, L. (2014). Effect of web-based education on nursing students' urinary catheterization knowledge and skills. Nurse education today, 34(5), 802-808. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2013.08.007

Pallant, J. (2020). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781003117445

Peska, D. N., & Lewis, K. O. (2010). Uniform instruction using web-based, asynchronous technology in a geographically distributed clinical clerkship: analysis of osteopathic medical student participation and satisfaction. The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association, 110(3), 135-142.

Ried, L. D. (2010). A distance education course in statistics. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 74(9). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7409172

Schlager, D. (2016). Schoology: The adoption of a learning management system.

Sicat, A. S., & Ed, M. (2015). Enhancing college students’ proficiency in business writing via schoology. International Journal of Education and Research, 3(1), 159-178.

Suana, W., Maharta, N., Nyeneng, I. D., & Wahyuni, S. (2017). Design and implementation of schoology-based blended learning media for basic physics I course. Jurnal Pendidikan IPA Indonesia, 6(1). https://doi.org/10.15294/jpii.v6i1.8648

Sudarwati, N. (2018). Evaluating E-Learning as a Learning Media: A Case of Entrepreneurship E-Learning using Schoology as Media. International Journal of Emerging Technologies in Learning, 13(9). https://doi.org/10.3991/ijet.v13i09.7783

Tezci, E., Karaca, D., & Sezginsoy, B. (2008). The Study of Reliability and Validity of Creative Materials. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology, 7(1):46-57

Woerkom, M. v., Piepenbrink, H., Godman, B., Metz, J. d., Campbell, S., Bennie, M., Eimers, M., & Gustafsson, L. L. (2012). Ongoing measures to enhance the efficiency of prescribing of proton pump inhibitors and statins in The Netherlands: influence and future implications. Journal of comparative effectiveness research, 1(6), 527-538. https://doi.org/10.2217/cer.12.52

Yusoff, M. S. B. (2019). ABC of content validation and content validity index calculation. Resource, 11(2), 49-54. https://doi.org/10.21315/eimj2019.11.2.6

Published

19/11/2021

Issue

Section

Research Article