RESEARCH ARTICLE: Assessment of drug information skills and resources utilisation among pharmacy students: A cross-sectional study

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2021.211.690694

Keywords:

Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience (APPE), Currriculum development, Drug information, Evidence-based practice (EBP), Pharmacy student

Abstract

Objective: To identify drug information (DI) resources commonly used by pharmacy students of King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia, and to assess their ability to determine the appropriate ones for different clinical situations.     

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in April 2014 (n=92). A paper-based questionnaire was developed, validated, and administered to fifth-year Pharm.D. students and advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) interns. It investigated the students’ DI sources preferences. Besides, it evaluated their competency in classifying DI resources and identifying the best resource to answer case-based multiple-choice questions. Moreover, the study aimed at assessing the impact of providing a case-based combined module of evidence-based practice (EBP) and DI for fifth-year students (new study plan) compared to delivering separate EBP and DI modules through theoretical lectures (old study plan–APPE interns).    

Results: The preferred resources to the students were online recourses (85.86%), soft copy books (26.08%), and mobile applications (25%). For the DI mobile applications, Medscape was the most common (63.4%), followed by Micromedex (53.5%), Lexicomp (42.3%), and Dynamed (16.9%). Fifth-year students’ scores were significantly higher than APPE interns for the case-based questions. Students’ GPAs were moderately correlated with their total scores.   

Conclusion: Study participants preferred using electronic DI resources to printed ones. The combined EBP-DI course could be a better option as it links the DI knowledge to clinical situations.

Author Biographies

Sarah Al Hussain, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia

Pharmacy Practice Department, College of Clinical Pharmacy

Ahmad Sarsour, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia & Regency Hospital, Sylvania, Ohio, United States

Pharmacy Practice Department & College of Clinical Pharmacy

Mohammad Zaitoun, King Faisal University, Saudi Arabia & Armed Forces Hospitals Southern Region, Saudi Arabia

Pharmacy Practice Department & Pharmaceutical care administration

References

Bernknopf, A. C., Karpinski, J. P., McKeever, A. L., Peak, A. S., Smith, K. M., Smith, W. D., Timpe, E. M., & Ward, K. E. (2009). Drug information: from education to practice. Pharmacotherapy, 29(3), 331-346. https://doi.org/10.1592/phco.29.3.331

Bookstaver, P. B., Rudisill, C. N., Bickley, A. R., McAbee, C., Miller, A. D., Piro, C. C., & Schulz, R. (2011). An evidence-based medicine elective course to improve student performance in advanced pharmacy practice experiences. Am J Pharm Educ, 75(1), 9. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7519

Bramley, D. M., Innes, A. J., Duggan, C., & Oborne, C. A. (2013). The impact of Medicines Information enquiry answering on patient care and outcomes. Int J Pharm Pract, 21(6), 393-404. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12018

Cardoni, A. A., & Thompson, T. J. (1978). Impact of Drug Information Services on Patient Care. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 35(10), 1233-1237. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/35.10.1233

Cerulli, J., Zeolla, M. M., & Cottrell, J. (2004). Drug Information Questions Posed to Community Pharmacy Advanced Practice Experience Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(3), 68. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj680368

Ghaibi, S., Ipema, H., & Gabay, M. (2015). ASHP Guidelines on the Pharmacist’s Role in Providing Drug Information. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 72(7), 573-577. https://doi.org/10.2146/sp150002

Hanrahan, C. T., & Cole, S. W. (2014). Assessment of drug information resource preferences of pharmacy students and faculty. Journal of the Medical Library Association: JMLA, 102(2), 117-121. https://doi.org/10.3163/1536-5050.102.2.012

Hedegaard, U., & Damkier, P. (2009). Problem-oriented drug information: physicians' expectations and impact on clinical practice. Eur J Clin Pharmacol, 65(5), 515-522. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-008-0604-5

Kinky, D. E., Erush, S. C., Laskin, M. S., & Gibson, G. A. (1999). Economic impact of a drug information service. Ann Pharmacother, 33(1), 11-16. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.18218

Lauderdale, S. A., Kendrach, M. G., & Kelly Freeman, M. (2007). Preparing Students for Community Pharmacy Practice During a Drug Information Advanced Practice Experience. Am J Pharm Educ, 71(2), 25. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj710225

Longyhore, D., Ference, K., & Nanstiel, B. (2011). An elective course in information mastery. Am J Pharm Educ, 75(2), 20. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe75220

Marrone, C. M., & Heck, A. M. (2000). Impact of a Drug Information Service: Practitioner Hours Saved. Hospital Pharmacy, 35(10), 1065-1070. https://doi.org/10.1177/001857870003501018

McEntee, J. E., Henderson, S. L., Rutter, P. M., Rutter, J., & Davis, H. J. (2010). Utility and value of a medicines information service provided by pharmacists: a survey of health professionals. Int J Pharm Pract, 18(6), 353-361. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2042-7174.2010.00068.x

Melnyk, P. S., Shevchuk, Y. M., & Remillard, A. J. (2000). Impact of the dial access drug information service on patient outcome. Ann Pharmacother, 34(5), 585-592. https://doi.org/10.1345/aph.19173

Nathan, J. P. (2013). Drug information--the systematic approach: continuing education article. J Pharm Pract, 26(2), 78-84. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190012474229

Strobach, D., Gruber, A. C., Möhler, N. C., & Vetter-Kerkhoff, C. (2015). Clinical impact of the hospital pharmacy drug information service: how does information on drug–drug interaction enquiries translate into clinical decisions? European Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 22(2), 83-88. https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2014-000487

Timpe, E. M., Motl, S. E., & Eichner, S. F. (2006). Weekly Active-Learning Activities in a Drug Information and Literature Evaluation Course. Am J Pharm Educ, 70(3), 52. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj700352

Toklu, H. Z. (2015). Promoting evidence-based practice in pharmacies. Integr Pharm Res Pract, 4, 127-131. https://doi.org/10.2147/iprp.S70406

Wood, E. H., Morrison, J. L., & Oppenheimer, P. R. (1990). Drug information skills for pharmacy students: curriculum integration. Bulletin of the Medical Library Association, 78(1), 8-14.

World Health Organization: The role of the pharmacist in the health care system. (1994). Retrieved 13 March from http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/pdf/h2995e/h2995e.pdf

Yamamoto, T., Yuda, T., Arimoto, A., Sejima, E., Kawahara, Y., Washiyama, A., & Futagami, K. (2011). Evaluation of a practical training program for drug information services for fifth-year pharmacy students in a hospital. Yakugaku Zasshi, 131(11), 1621-1628. https://doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.131.1621

Zehnder, S., Beutler, M., Bruppacher, R., Ehrenhofer, T., & Hersberger, K. E. (2004). Needs and use of drug information sources in community pharmacies: a questionnaire based survey in German-speaking Switzerland. Pharm World Sci, 26(4), 197-202. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PHAR.0000035881.17853.e0

Published

19/11/2021

Issue

Section

Research Article