RESEARCH ARTICLE: Inequality in accessing learning during pandemic crises in developing countries: Reflections from COVID-19-induced online learning at a Kenyan pharmacy school




Affordability, COVID-19, Online learning, Pharmacy school


Background: Virtual learning platforms gained unprecedented prominence after the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak. Assuring the quality of education and student satisfaction are critical, especially in developing countries often plagued with infrastructural limitations, including information technology.    

Objectives: This study was conducted to assess the perceptions of students at a Kenyan Pharmacy School of online learning with regards to affordability and overall effectiveness.    

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using an online survey containing pre-determined questions aligned to achieve the research objectives.    

Results:  Students in senior classes (Fifth year) viewed online learning more favourably and had fewer challenges with accessibility than students in the lower classes (First year to third year).    

Conclusion: The study identified areas of strength, such as convenience, time-efficiency, and self-initiative, as well as weaknesses, including inequitable access, internet connectivity challenges, and unsatisfactory lecturer digital competency, with relation to online learning.

Author Biographies

Kihugi Veronica Njambi, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

School of Pharmacy

Godfrey Wabwile Mayoka, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya

School of Pharmacy


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Research Article