RESEARCH ARTICLE: An entrepreneurial activity implementation and assessment among pharmacy students amid the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown

Authors

  • Elaine V. Nguyen American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States
  • So Hyun Kim American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States
  • Mohammed A. Islam American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States
  • Youngil Chang American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States
  • Judy Aoyagi American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States
  • Alamdar Hussain American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.1622

Keywords:

Assessment, COVID-19, Entrepreneurship, Innovation, Learning, Shark Tank

Abstract

Objective: To implement and assess innovation and entrepreneurship (IE) learning experience in professional pharmacy students using presentations based on the Shark Tank model.   

Methods: First-year doctor of pharmacy students were invited to participate in an IE learning experience emphasising the importance of self-care needs of the society during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Students’ proposals were assessed by Sharks (inquisitors) based on a grading rubric, and a post-activity survey captured students’ reflections of their experience.    

Results: Twelve students participated in the IE activity, and presented their proposals virtually in a Shark Tank style format. Students’ scores for the proposals ranged from 87.5% (capable entrepreneurs) to 56.8% (incapable entrepreneurs), with the winner receiving a gift certificate. Survey ratings given by students on a scale of one to five for the IE activity were overwhelmingly favourable, with both the activity (4.73 (1.09)) and presentation style (4.27 (0.37)) viewed to be timely and relevant.    

Conclusion: An IE learning activity was implemented and assessed in the pharmacy programme using Shark Tank style presentations. The authors believe such initiatives, conducted either virtually or face-to-face, could serve as prototypes for professional pharmacy schools interested in creating exciting ways to implement IE activities in their programmes.

Author Biographies

Elaine V. Nguyen, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

School of Pharmacy

So Hyun Kim, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

School of Pharmacy

Mohammed A. Islam, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

School of Pharmacy

Youngil Chang, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

School of Pharmacy

Judy Aoyagi, American University of Health Sciences, Signal Hill, California, United States

School of Pharmacy

References

Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. (2017). Accreditation standards and key elements for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the doctor of pharmacy degree, Standards 2016. https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/ACPEStandards2016Released.pdf. Accessed 27 November 2021

Baker, M.J., Zomorodi, M. (2018). Welcome to the clinical nurse leader shark tank. Journal of Nursing Education. 57(10), 631-632. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20180921-14

Braun, V., Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology. 3(2), 77-101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Brazeau, G. (2013). Entrepreneurial spirit in pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 77(5), Article 88. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77588

Center for the advancement of pharmaceutical education (CAPE). (2013). Center for the advancement of pharmaceutical education (CAPE) outcomes 2013. https://www.aacp.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/CAPEoutcomes2013%20%281%29.pdf. Accessed 27 November 2021

Cofrancesco, J., Wright, S.M., Vohr, E., Ziegelstein, R.C. (2017). Creating an education shark tank to encourage and support educational scholarship and innovation. Academic Medicine. 92(11), 1578-1582. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0000000000001715

University of the Pacific. (2021). Entrepreneurial pharmacy practice program. https://pharmacy.pacific.edu/pharmacy/entrepreneurial. Accessed 27 November 2021

Mercer University. (2021). Entrepreneurship track. https://pharmacy.mercer.edu/admissions/pharm-d/entrepreneurship-track. Accessed 27 November 2021

Hermansen-Kobulnicky, C.J., Moss, C.L. (2004). Pharmacy student entrepreneurial orientation: A measure to identify potential pharmacy entrepreneurs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 68(5), Article 113. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj6805113

Hussain, A., Chau, J., Bang, H., Meyer, L., Islam, M.A. (2021). Readiness, reception, and performance of students in a communications course delivered amid the pandemic. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. (Accepted) https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8617

Huston, S.A. (2018). Factors associated with entrepreneurial intentions in doctor of pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 82(9), Article 6355. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6355

Presbyterian college school of pharmacy. (2021). Innovation-Entrepreneurship. A program of Presbyterian college school of pharmacy. https://pharmacy.presby.edu/departments-offices/innovation-entrepreneurship. Accessed 27 November 2021

Krejcie, R.V., Morgan, D.W. (1970). Determining sample size for research activities. Educational & Psychological Measurement. 30(3), 607-610. https://doi.org/10.1177/001316447003000308

Laverty, G., Hanna, L.A., Haughey, S., Hughes, C. (2015). Developing entrepreneurial skills in pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 79(7), Article 106. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe797106

Texas Pharmacy. (2021). Lester entrepreneurial scholars program. https://pharmacy.utexas.edu/degrees-programs/lester-entrepreneurial-scholars. Accessed 27 November 2021

Malcolm, D.R. (2016). Innovation and entrepreneurship: CAPE outcomes in action. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching & Learning. 8(5), 587-588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2016.06.016

Mason HL, Assemi M, Brown B, et al. (2011). Report of the 2010-2011 Academic Affairs Standing Committee. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 75(10), Article S12. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7510S12

Mattingly, T.J., Mullins, C.D., Melendez, D.R., Boyden, K., Eddington, N.D. (2019a). A systematic review of entrepreneurship in pharmacy practice and education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 83(3), Article 7233. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7520

Mattingly, T.J., Abdelwoud, M., Mullins, C.D. (2019b). Pharmapreneur – Defining a framework for entrepreneurship in pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 83(10), Article 7548. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7548

Mogul, A., Laughlin, E., Lynch, S. (2020). A co-curricular activity to introduce pharmacy students to the concepts of innovation and entrepreneurship. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education. 84(8), Article 7805. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7805

Neck, H.M., Greene, P.G. (2011). Entrepreneurship education: known worlds and new frontiers. Journal of Small Business Management. 49(1), 55-70. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1540-627X.2010.00314.x

Phillips, A.C., Lewis, L.K., McEvoy, M.P., Galipeau, J., Glasziou, P., Moher, D., Tilson, J.K., Williams, M.T. (2016). Development and validation of the guideline for reporting evidence-based practice educational interventions and teaching (GREET). BMC Medical Education. 16(1), Article 237. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0759-1

Rosenthal, M., Austin, Z., Tsuyuki, R.T. (2010). Are pharmacists the ultimate barrier to pharmacy practice change? Canadian Pharmacy Journal. 143(1), 37-42. https://doi.org/10.3821/1913-701X-143.1.37

Shane, S., Venkataraman, S. (2000). The promise of entrepreneurship as a field of research. Academy of Management Review. 25(1), 217-226. https://doi.org/10.2307/259271

Sweaney, A.M., Casper, K.A., Hoyt, C.D., Wehr, A.M. (2014). Student pharmacists’ and recent graduates’ perception of and interest in independent pharmacy ownership. Innovations in Pharmacy. 5(4), Article 182. https://doi.org/10.24926/iip.v5i4.364

Published

01/01/2022

Issue

Section

Research Article