RESEARCH ARTICLE: To what extent does a pharmacy curriculum foster diversity and inclusion through paper-based case scenarios?

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2021.211.612620

Keywords:

Diversity, Health equity, Higher education, Inclusion, Pharmacy education

Abstract

Background: There is increasing awareness of diversity and inclusion needs within health and education systems to help address access and equity issues for minority groups. Although these calls are well known, there is little guidance for those working within these systems to create meaningful change. The purpose of this study was to critically review case-based teaching material within the authors' programmes through the lens of equity, diversity, and inclusion.

Methods: A document analysis of clinical workshop cases extracted from all integrated therapeutics courses administered in 2020 was conducted.

Results: Sex, age, and employment status were most commonly presented in cases (84.0%, 97.1%, 49.0% respectively). The majority (90.0%) of cases did not have ethnicity defined. The overwhelming majority of cases did not have living situation (68.3%) or sexual orientation (78.0%) defined.

Conclusion: Case-based teaching material within a pharmacy programme was largely undefined according to patient demographics and diversity markers. Findings support the notion that teaching material may have a contributory role towards systemic racism, prejudice, and implicit bias.

Author Biographies

Lisa J. Kremer, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Angela Lan Anh Nguyen, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Te Awanui Waaka, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Jaime Tutbury, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Kyle J Wilby, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health

Alesha Smith, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

References

ASHP (Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education). (2021). PharmD Program Accreditation. Available from: https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pharmd-program-accreditation/

Arya, V., Butler, L., Leal, S., Maine, L., Alvarez, N., Jackson, N., & Varkey, A. C. (2020). Systemic Racism: Pharmacists’ Role and Responsibility. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(11), 8418. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8418

Baciu, A., Negussie, Y., & Geller, A. (2017). Committee on Community-Based Solutions to Promote Health Equity in the United States; Communities in Action: Pathways to Health Equity. Washington (DC), United States of America: National Academies Press (US) Available from: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK425844/.

Borrell, L.N., Elhawary, J.R., Fuentes-Afflick, E., Witonsky, J., Bhakta, N., Wu, A.H.B., Bibbins-Domingo, K., Rodriguez-Santana, J., Lenior, Mą., Gavin, J.R., Kittles, R.A., Zaitlen, N.A., Wilkes, D.S., Powe, N.R., Ziv, E., & Burchard, E.G. (2021). Race and Genetic Ancestry in Medicine — A Time for Reckoning with Racism. New England Journal of Medicine, 384(5), 474-480. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMms2029562

Bowen, G. (2009). Document Analysis as a Qualitative Research Method. Qualitative Research Journal, 9, 27-40. https://doi.org/10.3316/QRJ0902027

Chambers, J.W., Kambon, K., Birdsong, B.D., Brown, J., Dixon, P., & Robbins-Brinson, L. (1998). Africentric Cultural Identity and the Stress Experience of African American College Students. Journal of Black Psychology, 24(3), 368-396. https://doi.org/10.1177/00957984980243007

Cormack, D., Harris, R., Stanley, J., Lacey, C., Jones, R., & Curtis, E. (2018). Ethnic bias amongst medical students in Aotearoa/New Zealand: Findings from the Bias and Decision Making in Medicine (BDMM) study. PloS One, 13(8), e0201168. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0201168

Greenwald, A.G., & Banaji, M.R. (1995). Implicit social cognition: Attitudes, self-esteem, and stereotypes. Psychological Review, 102(1), 4-27. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.102.1.4

Greenwald, A.G., Banaji, M.R., Rudman, L.A., Farnham, S.D., Nosek, B.A., & Mellott, D.S. (2002). A unified theory of implicit attitudes, stereotypes, self-esteem, and self-concept. Psychological Review, 109(1), 3-25. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-295X.109.1.3

Jones, R., Crowshoe, L., Reid, P., Calam, B., Curtis, E., Green, M., Hurra, T., Jacklin, K., Kamaka, M., Lacey, C., Milroy, J., Paul, D., Pitama, S., Walker, L., Webb, G., & Ewen, S. (2019). Educating for Indigenous Health Equity: An International Consensus Statement. Academic Medicine, 94(4), 512-519. https://doi.org/10.1097/acm.0000000000002476

Katz, J., Joiner, T.E., & Kwon, P. (2002). Membership in a Devalued Social Group and Emotional Well-Being: Developing a Model of Personal Self-Esteem, Collective Self-Esteem, and Group Socialization. Sex Roles, 47(9), 419-431. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1021644225878

Lavallee, B., Diffey, L., Dignan, T., & Tomascik, P. (2014). Is cultural safety enough? Confronting racism to address inequities in Indigneous health.

Lavizzo-Mourey, R.J., Besser, R.E., & Williams, D.R. (2021). Understanding and Mitigating Health Inequities — Past, Current, and Future Directions. New England Journal of Medicine, 384(18), 1681-1684. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp2008628

Liberman, Z., Woodward, A.L., & Kinzler, K.D. (2017). The Origins of Social Categorization. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 21(7), 556-568. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2017.04.004

Lim, G.H.T., Sibanda, Z., Erhabor, J., Bandyopadhyay, S., Neurology, & Neurosurgery Interest, G. (2021). Students' perceptions on race in medical education and healthcare. Perspectives on medical education, 10(2), 130-134. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40037-020-00645-6

Muntinga, M.E., Krajenbrink, V.Q., Peerdeman, S.M., Croiset, G., & Verdonk, P. (2016). Toward diversity-responsive medical education: taking an intersectionality-based approach to a curriculum evaluation. Advances in Health Science Education Theory Practice, 21(3), 541-559. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-015-9650-9

Statistics, N.Z. (2013a). 2018 Census Place Summaries. Available from: https://www.stats.govt.nz/tools/2018-census-place-summaries/new-zealand

Statistics, N.Z. (2013b). Disability Survey. Available from: https://www.stats.govt.nz/information-releases/disability-survey-2013

Wild, C.E., Rawiri, N.T., Willing, E.J., Hofman, P.L., & Anderson, Y.C. (2021). What affects programme engagement for Māori families? A qualitative study of a family-based, multidisciplinary healthy lifestyle programme for children and adolescents. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 57(5), 670-676. https://doi.org/10.1111/jpc.15309

Published

04/11/2021

Issue

Section

Research Article