RESEARCH ARTICLE: To what extent does a pharmacy curriculum foster diversity and inclusion through paper-based case scenarios?




Diversity, Health equity, Higher education, Inclusion, Pharmacy education


Background: There is increasing awareness of diversity and inclusion needs within health and education systems to help address access and equity issues for minority groups. Although these calls are well known, there is little guidance for those working within these systems to create meaningful change. The purpose of this study was to critically review case-based teaching material within the authors' programmes through the lens of equity, diversity, and inclusion.

Methods: A document analysis of clinical workshop cases extracted from all integrated therapeutics courses administered in 2020 was conducted.

Results: Sex, age, and employment status were most commonly presented in cases (84.0%, 97.1%, 49.0% respectively). The majority (90.0%) of cases did not have ethnicity defined. The overwhelming majority of cases did not have living situation (68.3%) or sexual orientation (78.0%) defined.

Conclusion: Case-based teaching material within a pharmacy programme was largely undefined according to patient demographics and diversity markers. Findings support the notion that teaching material may have a contributory role towards systemic racism, prejudice, and implicit bias.

Author Biographies

Lisa J. Kremer, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Angela Lan Anh Nguyen, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Te Awanui Waaka, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Jaime Tutbury, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)

Kyle J Wilby, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada

College of Pharmacy, Faculty of Health

Alesha Smith, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand

He Rau Kawakawa (School of Pharmacy)


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How to Cite

Kremer, L. J., Nguyen, A. L. A., Waaka, T. A., Tutbury, J., Wilby, K. J., & Smith, A. (2021). RESEARCH ARTICLE: To what extent does a pharmacy curriculum foster diversity and inclusion through paper-based case scenarios?. Pharmacy Education, 21, p. 612–620.



Research Article