RESEARCH ARTICLE: Recommendations for implementing work-integrated learning in South African schools of pharmacy

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.8899

Keywords:

Pharmacy, Recommendations, Work-integrated learning

Abstract

Aim: Pharmacy schools in South Africa need to prove compliance with work-integrated learning (WIL) as articulated in the Good Pharmacy Education Standards (GPES). This study aims to determine the current status of WIL in South African schools of pharmacy.    

Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with heads of pharmacy schools regarding the challenges experienced with the implementation of WIL.    

Results: Four of the possible nine heads of South African schools of pharmacy participated in the study. Categories and subcategories were identified under the theme ‘challenges of WIL’.    

Conclusion: Findings showed that pharmacy schools in South Africa comply partially with WIL requirements. Possible reasons for partial compliance are challenges experienced relating to resources, campus-based infrastructure and service providers. Based on this study’s findings, the authors present several recommendations for the implementation of WIL in South African pharmacy schools.

Author Biographies

Irma Kotzé, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Division Health Sciences Education, Faculty of Health Sciences

Gerda Reitsma, North-West University, South Africa

Centre for Health Professions Education, Faculty of Health Sciences

René Botha, University of the Free State, Bloemfontein, South Africa

Community-Based Education and Rural Health, Faculty of Health Sciences

References

Abeysekera, I., (2006). “Issues Relating to Designing a Work-Integrated Learning Program in an Undergraduate Accounting Degree Program and Its Implications for the Curriculum.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 7, 7–15. https://ro.uow.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1579&context=commpapers

Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. (2015). Accreditation and Key Elements for the Professional Program in Pharmacy Leading to a Doctor of Pharmacy Degree (“Standards 2016”). Chicago, ILL: Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education. https://www.acpe-accredit.org/pdf/Standards2016FINAL.pdf

Atkinson, G., Misko, J., & Stanwick, J. (2015). Work Integrated Learning in STEM Disciplines: The Employer Perspective. Adelaide: National Centre for Vocational Education Research. https://www.voced.edu.au/content/ngv%3A69544

Australian Pharmacy Council. (2012). Accreditation standards for pharmacy programs in Australia and New Zealand. https://www.pharmacycouncil.org.au/resources/pharmacy-program-standards/

Bates, L. (2005). Building a Bridge between university and employment: Work integrated learning: Research Brief 2005/08. Brisbane: Queensland Parliamentary Library. http://www.parliament.qld.gov.au/documents/explore/researchpublications/researchbriefs/2005/200508.pdf

Bates, M. (2011). “Work-Integrated Learning Workloads: The Realities and Responsibilities.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 12(2), 111–124

Billot, S., & Choy, S. (2013). “Learning Through Work: Emerging Perspectives and New Challenges.” Journal of Workplace Learning, 25(4), 264–276. https://doi.org/10.1108/13665621311316447

Brown, N. (2010). “WIL[ling] to Share: An Institutional Conversation to Guide Policy and Practice in Work-Integrated Learning.” Higher Education Research and Development, 29(5), 507–518. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2010.502219

Burch, V. (2014). “Does Simulation-Based Training Have a Future in Africa?” African Journal of Health Professions Education, 6(2), 117–118. https://doi.org/10.7196/AJHPE.534

Burmeister, E., & Aitken, L.M. (2010). “Sample Size: How Many Is Enough?” Australian Critical Care, 25(4), 271–274. http://www.australiancriticalcare.com/article/S1036-7314(12)00084-7/pdf

Burns, N., & Grove, S.K. (2008). The Practice of Nursing Research: Conduct, Critique & Utilization. Saunders: Elsevier, St Louis

Business Higher Education Roundtable. (2015). Taking the Pulse of Work-Integrated Learning in Canada. Academica Group. https://www.queensu.ca/experientiallearninghub/faculty/reports

Calway, B., & Murphy, G. (2007). “The Educational Imperatives for a Work-Integrated Learning Philosophy.” Journal of Cooperative Education and Internships, 41(2), 12–22

Campbell, M., & Zegwaard, K.E. (2012). “Ethical Considerations and Values Development in Work-Integrated Learning Programs.” In Proceedings of the Australian Collaborative Education Network (ACEN) National Conference. Geelong: Deakin University. https://www.academia.edu/2878316/Ethical_considerations_and_values_development_in_work_integrated_learning_programs

Clark, L., Rowe, A., Cantori, A., Bilgin, A., & Mukuria, V. (2016). “The Power Dynamics and Politics of Survey Design: Measuring Workload Associated with Teaching, Administering and Supporting Work-Integrated Learning Courses.” Studies in Higher Education, 41(6), 1055–1073. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2014.966071

Cooper, L., Orrell, J., & Bowden, M. (2010). Work Integrated Learning: A Guide to Effective Practice. Routledge: New York. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203854501

Davies, I.T., & Shirley, M.J. (2007). “Internationalising Work-Integrated Learning for Law Students.” In Proceedings of the 15th World Conference on Cooperative Education (WACE). Singapore: WACE

Department of Industry. (2014). Engaging Employers in Work Integrated Learning: Current State and Future Priorities. Victoria, Australia: PhillipsKPA. https://www.phillipskpa.com.au/case-studies/higher-education/engaging-employers-in-work-integrated-learning-current-state-and-future-priorities

Dwesini, N.F. (2017). “Exploring Key Challenges Encountered by Hospitality Management Students Participating in a Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) Programme in South Africa.” African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, 6(2), 1–10. http://www.ajhtl.com/uploads/7/1/6/3/7163688/article_10_vol_6__2__2017.pdf

Edwards, D., Perkins, K., Pearce, J., & Hong, J. (2015). Work Integrated Learning in STEM in Australian Universities: Final Report Submitted to the Office of the Chief Scientist. Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER). https://research.acer.edu.au/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1046&context=higher_education

Erdem, M.B., & Toklu, M.C. (2016). “Standardization of Cooperative Education Processes via Management Information Systems.” Journal of Quality in Higher education, 3(2), 65–68. https://www.tojqih.net/journals/tojqih/articles/v03i02/v03i02-07.pdf

Hayden, J.K., Smiley, R.A., Alexander, M., Kardond-Edgren, S., & Jeffries, P.R. (2014). “The NCSBN National Simulation Study: A Longitudinal, Randomized, Controlled Study Replacing Clinical Hours with Simulation in Prelicensure Nursing Education.” Journal of Nursing Regulation, 5(2), 1–66. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2155-8256(15)30062-4

Health Workforce Australia. (2011). Mapping Clinical Placements: Capturing Opportunities For Growth. Adelaide: Health Workforce

Higher Education Quality Council of Ontario. (2016). A Practical Guide for Work-Integrated Learning: Effective Practices to Enhance the Educational Quality of Structured Work Experiences Offered Through Colleges and Universities. Toronto: Queen’s Printer for Ontario. https://www.vu.edu.au/sites/default/files/CCLT/pdfs/heqco-practical-guide-wil.pdf

Jackson, D. (2013). “The Contribution of Work-Integrated Learning to Undergraduate Employability Skill Outcomes.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 14(2), 99–115

Jackson, D. (2014). “Employability Skill Development in Work-Integrated Learning: Barrier And Best Practice.” Studies in Higher Education, 40(2), 350–367. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075079.2013.842221

Jackson, D., Ferns, S., Rowbottom, D., & McLaren, D. (2015). Working Together to Achieve Better Work-Integrated Learning Outcome: Improving Productivity Through Better Employer Involvement. Perth: Edith Cowan University. http://acen.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/Working-together-to-achieve-better-WIL-outcomes.pdf

Kyngäs, H., & VanHanen, L. (1999). “Content analysis” (Finnish). Hoitotiede, 11, 3–12

Manzar-Abbas, S., & Lu, L. (2013). “Collaboration Problems During Practicum in Pre-Service Teacher Education in Pakistan.” Academic Research International, 4(3), 379–393

McLennan, B., & Keating, S. (2008). “Work-Integrated Learning (WIL) in Australian Universities: The Challenges of Mainstreaming WIL.” In ALTC NAGCAS National Symposium. Melbourne. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download;jsessionid=C33E72DB3DA417BFDBEA2BA90CC23685?doi=10.1.1.530.4443&rep=rep1&type=pdf

Patrick, C., Peach, D., Pocknee, C., Webb, F., Fletcher, M., & Pretto, G. (2008). The WIL Report– Work Integrated Learning: A National Scoping Study. Final Report to the Australian Learning and Teaching Council. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. http://eprints.qut.edu.au/44065/1/WIL-Report-grants-project-jan09.pdf

Peach, D., Larkin, I., & Ruinard, E. (2012). “High Risk, High Stake Relationships: Building Effective Industry-University Partnerships for Work Integrated Learning (WIL).” In Proceedings of the ACEN 2012 Conference. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. http://acen.edu.au/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/ACEN-2010-Proceedings.pdf?x99824

Pitout, B.R. (2009). “Transforming Work-Integrated Learning: Strengths, Shortcomings and Solutions.” Journal for New Generation Sciences, 7(1), 176–202. https://journals.co.za/doi/abs/10.10520/EJC83514

Reeve, F., & Gallacher, J. (2005). “Employer-University ‘Partnerships’: A Key Problem for Work‐Based Learning Programmes?” Journal of Education and Work, 18(2), 219–233. https://doi.org/10.1080/13639080500085992

Rook, L. (2017). “Challenges Implementing Work-Integrated Learning in Human Resource Management University Courses.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education, 18(3), 199–212. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1156043.pdf

SAPC (South African Pharmacy Council). (2017). Good Pharmacy Education Standards Amended (Higher Education and Training). https://www.pharmcouncil.co.za/media/default/documents/Good_Pharmacy_Education_Standards_(HET)_(2017).pdf

Smith, C. (2012). “Evaluating the Quality of Work-Integrated Learning Curricula: A Comprehensive Framework.” Higher Education Research and Development, 31(2), 247–262. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360.2011.558072

South Africa. (1994). Department of Health. Regulations Relating to the Minimum Requirements of the Curriculum for a Degree in Pharmacy. R.1528 of 9 September 1994. Pretoria: Government Printers

South Africa. (2014). Good Pharmacy Education Standards in Terms of Section 34 of the Pharmacy Act, Act 53 of 1974. Notice 153. Pretoria: Government Printers. https://www.mm3admin.co.za/documents/docmanager/0C43CA52-121E-4F58-B8F6-81F656F2FD17/00081072.pdf

Spowart, J. (2012). “Preparing Future-Fit Leaders: The Challenge of Work Integrated Learning in The Faculty of Management in a Comprehensive University: A Discussion Paper.” Johannesburg: World Association for Cooperative Education (WACE). http://www.waceinc.org/bahcesehir2012/cp/refereed/SouthAfrica/Jane%20Spowart%20University%20of%20Johannesburg%20(Discussion)%20Preparing%20future%20fit%20leaders.pdf

Thorne, P. (2010). Supporting, Assessing and Accrediting Workplace Learning. London: Cassell

Weisz, M., & Smith, S. (2005). “Critical Changes for Successful Cooperative Education.” In Higher Education in a Changing World: Research and Development In Higher Education: Proceedings of the 28th HERDSA Annual Conference. Sydney. https://conference.herdsa.org.au/2005/pdf/refereed/paper_289.pdf

Xu, J. (2015). Implementation of Workplace Learning in the Accountancy Schools of Australian Universities. Master of Business. Brisbane: Queensland University of Technology. https://eprints.qut.edu.au/84346/1/Jia_Xu_Thesis.pdf

Yorke, J., & Vidovich, L. (2014). “Quality Policy and the Role of Assessment in Work-Integrated Learning.” Asia-Pacific Journal of Cooperative Education [Special issue], 15(3), 223–237

Downloads

Published

2022-02-02

How to Cite

Kotzé, I., Reitsma, G. ., & Botha , R. . (2022). RESEARCH ARTICLE: Recommendations for implementing work-integrated learning in South African schools of pharmacy. Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 88–99. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.8899

Issue

Section

Research Article