REVIEW: Pharmacy education in the Sultanate of Oman: Challenges and opportunities

Authors

  • Ahmed A. Abusham University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1480-0071
  • Muna A. Aljuma University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Muscat, Oman
  • Leena A. Ali Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman
  • Qasim A. Al Riyami Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM), Muscat, Oman

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.155164

Keywords:

Curriculum, Experiential learning, Oman, Pharmacy education, Pharmacy practice

Abstract

Pharmacy degree in Oman makes up to 5-year in Bachelor of Pharmacy and 4-year in diploma of pharmacy. The curricula of the pharmacy programme include basic sciences, pharmaceutical sciences, pharmacy practice, and experiential learning. Students are posted in different healthcare sectors and facilities during experiential learning to gain the practice experience. Graduates must complete an internship programme in various healthcare settings, including hospitals, polyclinics, health centres, and community pharmacies. Pharmacists and assistant pharmacists should fulfil the pharmacy licensing conditions and pass the Prometric exam to register and practice pharmacy. There is a shortage of pharmacy workforce in practice, academia, and industry. With the need for a specialised pharmacy workforce in different sectors, it is time to review the pharmacy education in Oman to meet the national needs and priorities.

Author Biographies

Ahmed A. Abusham, University of Nizwa, Nizwa, Oman

Assistant Professor, Clinical Pharmacy

Muna A. Aljuma, University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Muscat, Oman

  

Leena A. Ali, Sultan Qaboos University, Muscat, Oman

  

Qasim A. Al Riyami, Knowledge Oasis Muscat (KOM), Muscat, Oman

  

References

ACPE. (2021). International Services Programme. Accreditation Council For Pharmacy Education. Retrieved November 2021 from https://www.acpe-accredit.org/international-services-programme/

Ahmad, A., Alkharfy, K. M., Alrabiah, Z., & Alhossan, A. (2020). Saudi Arabia, Pharmacists and Covid-19 Pandemic. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 13(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00243-1

Al-Ghananeem, A. M., Malcom, D. R., Shammas, S., & Aburjai, T. (2018). A Call to Action to Transform Pharmacy Education and Practice in the Arab World. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 82(9). https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7014

Alghamdi, E. A., Albalawi, O. M., & Alshammari, T. M. (2021). Health Outcomes and Policy in Pharmacy Curricula among Arab Countries: An Evaluation of 191 Academic Institutions. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 29(8), 799–806. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2021.06.001

Aljadhey, H. (2013). Challenges Facing Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Saudi Arabia. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 77(1). https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77119

Anderson, C., & Futter, B. (2009). PharmD or Needs-Based Education: Which Comes First? American journal of pharmaceutical education, 73(5). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj730592

Chanakit, T., Low, B. Y., Wongpoowarak, P., Moolasarn, S., & Anderson, C. (2014). A Survey of Pharmacy Education in Thailand. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 78(9). https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe789161

Cokro, F., Atmanda, P. F. K., Sagala, R. J., Arrang, S. T., Notario, D., Rukmini, E., & Aparasu, R. (2021). Pharmacy Education in Indonesia. Pharmacy Education, 21(1), 432-442. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2021.211.432442

DGPADC. (2019). Annual Report. Ministry of Health: Directorate General of Pharmaceutical Affairs & Drug Control. Retrieved November 2020 from https://www.moh.gov.om/documents/16539/0/2019+Annual+Report.pdf/52c0f748-7ac5-e12d-5eac-0fdd1ccc6c73

DGPADC. (2020). Requirements for Appearing Licensing Examination for Pharmacist and Assistant Pharmacists. . Ministry of Health Directorate General of Pharmaceutical Affairs and Drug Control. Retrieved November 2021 from https://www.moh.gov.om/documents/16539/0/reqq.pdf/c4f3426f-c081-fc0f-2bf9-4104005f189e

El-Awaisi, A., Saffouh El Hajj, M., Joseph, S., & Diack, L. (2016). Interprofessional Education in the Arabic-Speaking Middle East: Perspectives of Pharmacy Academics. Journal of interprofessional care, 30(6), 769-776. https://doi.org/10.1080/13561820.2016.1218830

El-Awaisi, A., Wilby, K. J., Wilbur, K., El Hajj, M. S., Awaisu, A., & Paravattil, B. (2017). A Middle Eastern Journey of Integrating Interprofessional Education into the Healthcare Curriculum: A Swot Analysis. BMC medical education, 17(1), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0852-5

FIP. (2008). Pharmacy Education Taskforce: Action Plan 2008 – 2010. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Retrieved December 2021 from https://www.fip.org/files/fip/PharmacyEducation/Taskforce%20action%20plan.pdf

FIP. (2014). Continuing Professional Development/Continuing Education in Pharmacy: Global Report. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Retrieved December 2021 from https://www.fip.org/file/1407

FIP. (2020). The FIP Development Goals: Transforming Global Pharmacy. International Pharmaceutical Federation. Retrieved November 2021 from https://www.fip.org/file/4793

HEAC. (2021). Student Guidebook. Higher Education Admission Center. https://heac.gov.om/media/doc/StudentGuid2021En.pdf

Kheir, N., Zaidan, M., Younes, H., El Hajj, M., Wilbur, K., & Jewesson, P. J. (2008). Pharmacy Education and Practice in 13 Middle Eastern Countries. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 72(6). https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7206133

Maidment, I., Young, E., MacPhee, M., Booth, A., Zaman, H., Breen, J., Hilton, A., Kelly, T., & Wong, G. (2021). Rapid Realist Review of the Role of Community Pharmacy in the Public Health Response to Covid-19. BMJ Open, 11(6), e050043. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050043

MoH. (2014). Health Vision 2050: The Main Document. Oman: Ministry of Health. https://www.moh.gov.om/documents/16506/119833/Health+Vision+2050

MoH. (2018). Annual Health Report Oman. Ministry of Health. Retrieved December 2020 from https://www.moh.gov.om/en_US/web/statistics/annual-reports

MoH. (2020). Pharmacy Law: Ministerial Decree No. 113/2020 [Arabic]. Qanoon. Retrieved December 2021 from https://qanoon.om/p/2020/moh20200113/

Nasr, Z. G., & Wilby, K. J. (2017). Introducing Problem-Based Learning into a Canadian-Accredited Middle Eastern Educational Setting. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 9(4), 719-722. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.03.027

NCSI. (2020). Statistical Year Book 2020:Issue 48. National Centre for Statistics and Information. https://www.ncsi.gov.om/Elibrary/LibraryContentDoc/bar_bar_2020_77577cb3-c8fe-49c6-ae5d-77f1fbae98e0.pdf

NUST. (2020). Bachelor of Pharmacy (B. Pharm). National University of Science and Technology. Retrieved December 2020 from https://www.nu.edu.om/contentdetails.aspx?id=20

NUST. (2021). MSc in Clinical Pharmacy. National University of Science and Technology. Retrieved December 2021 from https://www.nu.edu.om/contentdetails.aspx?id=916

OAAA (2019). Oman Qualification Framework: Qualification Arrangements. Retrieved December 2021 from http://www.oaaa.gov.om/Journal/Qualification%20Arrangements.pdf

OAAA. (2020). Programme Accreditation. Oman Authority for Academic Accreditation and Quality Assurance of Education. Retrieved December 2021 from http://www.oaaa.gov.om/Default.aspx

Obaid, D., El-Dahiyat, F., & Babar, Z.-U.-D. (2021). Recommendations to Improve Pharmacy Practice Research in the Middle Eastern Arab Countries. Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice, 14(1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-021-00357-0

OBG. (2015). The Report: Oman 2015. UK. Oxford Business Group. https://oxfordbusinessgroup.com/oman-2015

OMSB. (2021). Prometric Exam. Oman Medical Speciality Board. Retrieved November 2021 from https://www.prometric.com/test-takers/search/omsb

Resnik, D. B., Ranelli, P. L., & Resnik, S. P. (2000). The Conflict between Ethics and Business in Community Pharmacy: What About Patient Counseling? Journal of Business Ethics, 28(2), 179-186. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1006280300427

SQU. (2020a). College of Medicine and Health Sciences: Pharmacology and Clinical Pharmacy. Sultan Qaboos University. Retrieved November 2021 from https://www.squ.edu.om/medicine/Departments/Pharmacology-Clinical-Pharmacy/About-Pharmacology-Clinical-Pharmacy

SQU. (2020b). Postgraduate Programme (2020/2021). Sultan Qaboos University. Retrieved November 2021. From https://www.squ.edu.om/Portals/42/xEvent/uploads/2020/6/18/programmes%20AD%2020-EN.pdf

SQU. (2021). Phd in Clinical Pharmacy. Sultan Qaboos University. Retrieved December 2021 from https://www.squ.edu.om/ps/en-us/Programmes/ArticleID/716/PhD-in-Clinical-Pharmacy

Supapaan, T., Low, B. Y., Wongpoowarak, P., Moolasarn, S., & Anderson, C. (2019). A Transition from the Bpharm to the PharmD Degree in Five Selected Countries. Pharmacy Practice (Granada), 17(3). https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2019.3.1611

UN. (2018a). Bachelor in Pharmacy Programme Outline. University of Nizwa. . Retrieved December 2020 from https://www.unizwa.edu.om/content_files/02375-4228.pdf

UN. (2018b). School of Pharmacy (Sop) Practicum and Internship Programme. University of Nizwa. Retrieved November 2020 from https://www.unizwa.edu.om/index.php?contentid=2246

UN. (2020). School of Pharmacy: Department Profile. University of Nizwa. Retrieved Novmber 2019 from https://www.unizwa.edu.om/index.php?contentid=2374

UTAS. (2020). Pharmacy Department: Degree Audit. University of Technology and Applied Sciences, Higher College of Technology. Retrieved Novmber 2021 from https://www.hct.edu.om/pdf/pharmacy/degree-audit.pdf

Van Eekeren, R., Rolfes, L., Koster, A. S., Magro, L., Parthasarathi, G., Al Ramimmy, H., Schutte, T., Tanaka, D., van Puijenbroek, E., & Härmark, L. (2018). What Future Healthcare Professionals Need to Know About Pharmacovigilance: Introduction of the WHO Pv Core Curriculum for University Teaching with Focus on Clinical Aspects. Drug safety, 41(11), 1003-1011. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40264-018-0681-z

WBG. (2019). Data: Oman. The World Bank Group. Retrieved November 2019 from https://data.worldbank.org/country/oman?view=chart

WHO. (2010). WHO Framework for Action on Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice. Geneva: World Health Organisation. http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/70185/WHO_HRH_HPN_10.3_eng.pdf

Downloads

Published

2022-02-25

How to Cite

Abusham, A. A., Aljuma, M. A., Ali, L. A., & Al Riyami, Q. A. (2022). REVIEW: Pharmacy education in the Sultanate of Oman: Challenges and opportunities. Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 155–164. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.155164

Issue

Section

Review