IAI SPECIAL EDITION: The development of a medication safety module for healthcare professionals: Results of a Delphi technique
Keywords:Collaboration, Delphi technique, Medication safety, Module development
Background: Healthcare professionals need to learn jointly to foster role understanding in medication pathways to ensure medication safety.
Objectives: This research aims to validate a module on medication safety using Delphi techniques involving the collaboration of medication safety experts.
Methods: The experts reviewed the structure and content of the medication safety module using the Delphi technique process. Structural and content validity was obtained when more than 79% of the expert panels rated the statements more than 3. Agreements were reported as content validity index (CVI).
Results: The expert panels consisted of four physicians, three pharmacists, and three nurses. Although CVIs for prescribing, administration, and monitoring were 86%, the CVI for the role and responsibility of professionals in dispensing was rated 71%, indicating the need for a revision.
Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. (2019). The Pharmacist's Role in Medication Safety. Retrieved from PSNet website: https://psnet.ahrq.gov/primer/pharmacists-role-medication-safety#
Church, A., & Bateman, A. (2019). Methodology and professional development: Conversation Analytic Role-play Method (CARM) for early childhood education. Journal of Pragmatics, 143, 242–254. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2019.01.022
Emanuel, L.L.; Taylor, L; Hain, A.; Combes, J.R.; Hatlie, M.J.; Karsh, B; Lau, D.T.; Shalowitz, J.; Shaw, T.; Walton M. (2011). Module 12c: Interventional Care: Medication Safety. Available at: https://www.patientsafetyinstitute.ca/en/education/PatientSafetyEducationProgram/PatientSafetyEducationCurriculum/Documents/Module%2012C%20-%20Medication%20Safety.pdf
Ernawati, D.K., Lee, Y.P., & Hughes, J.D. (2014). Nature and frequency of medication errors in a geriatric ward: An Indonesian experience. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10(1). https://doi.org/10.2147/TCRM.S61687
Ernawati, D.K. (2015). Medication safety in Indonesia: expanding pharmacists' role through interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional practice (IPP). Thesis, Curtin University
Falconer, N., Barras, M., Martin, J., & Cottrell, N. (2019). Defining and classifying terminology for medication harm: a call for consensus. European Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 75(2), 137–145. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-018-2567-5
Habibi, A., Sarafrazi, A., & Izadyar, S. (2014). Delphi Technique Theoretical Framework in Qualitative Research. The International Journal of Engineering And Science (IJES), 3(4), 2319–1805. https://theijes.com/papers/v3-i4/Version-4/B03404008013.pdf
Kvaal, S., Gjestvang, B., Johanne, K., Erik, K., & Kari, H. (2021). A training course on interpersonal relationships using role play in a Master of Mental Health Care programme – The students' experiences. Nurse Education Today, 102, 104887. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nedt.2021.104887
NPS Medicinewise Professionals. (2021). Understanding medication safety
Pintor-Mármol, A., Baena, M. I., Fajardo, P.C., Sabater-Hernández, D., Sáez-Benito, L., García-Cárdenas, M.V., Fikri-Benbrahim, N., Azpilicueta, I., & Faus, M.J. (2012). Terms used in patient safety related to medication: a literature review. Pharmacoepidemiology and drug safety, 21(8), 799–809. https://doi.org/10.1002/pds.3296
Routledge, P.A. (2019). Medication Safety in high-risk situations. The Third Global Patient Safety Challenge: Medication Without Harm, Webinar on Medication Safety, 4–11
Salmasi, S., Khan, T.M., Hong, Y.H., Ming, L.C., & Wong, T. W. (2015). Medication errors in the Southeast Asian countries: A systematic review. PLoS ONE, 10(9). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0136545
Saxena, D. B., Kumar, P., Rana, M., Shah, H. M. (2012). A case study on use of modified Delphi technique for developing consensus on designing contents of a module for imparting sex education to adolescents in schools, in India. Global Journal of Medicine and Public Health, 1(3), 3–7
Suastika, I. ketut, & Rahmawati, A. (2019). Pengembangan Modul Pembelajaran Matematika Dengan Pendekatan Kontekstual. JPMI (Jurnal Pendidikan Matematika Indonesia), 4(2), 58. https://doi.org/10.26737/jpmi.v4i2.1230
WHO. (2017). Medication Without Harm. World Health Organization, 16. Available at: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/255263/WHO-HIS-SDS-2017.6-eng.pdf
World Health Organization. (2019a). Medication Safety in Transitions of Care. Technical Report. Who, 52
World HealthOrganization. (2019b). Medication Safety in Polypharmacy. Technical report. 1–63. Retrieved from https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/325454/WHO-UHC-SDS-2019.11-eng.pdf
Zamanzadeh, V., Rassouli, M., Abbaszadeh, A., Majd, H. A., Nikanfar, A., & Ghahramanian, A. (2015). Details of content validity and objectifying it in instrument development. Nursing Practice Today, 1(3), 163–171. https://npt.tums.ac.ir/index.php/npt/article/view/24