IAI SPECIAL EDITION: Cytotoxic activity of Cantigi leaf extract (Vaccinium varingiaefolium Blume Miq.) on HeLa cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells
Keywords:A549 Cells, Cantigi leaf, Cytotoxic activity, Ethyl acetate extract , HeLa cell
Background: Cervical and lung cancer cases in 2018-2020 have increased worldwide and in Indonesia. Cancer treatment often involves multidisciplinary approaches and is uncomfortable. Therefore, alternative medicine from natural ingredients is needed. Previous studies showed that the Cantigi leaf ethyl acetate extract has cytotoxic activity categorised as very strong on L1210 leukaemia cells (IC50 of 8.29 ppm) and strong on MCF-7 cells (IC50 of 75.23 ppm) and T47D cells (IC50 of 88.89 ppm), but no reports exist on HeLa and A549 cells.
Objective: To determine the cytotoxic activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Cantigi leaf on HeLa cells and A549 cells.
Methods: Powdered dry young Cantigi leaves were macerated with hexane, then ethyl acetate. After vacuum evaporation, the dry extract was characterised and tested for its cytotoxic activity on HeLa cells and A549 cells using the MTT method.
Results: The ethyl acetate extract colour was dark green with a distinctive Cantigi odour; it had a water content of 4.3% and an acidic pH of 2.87. It showed functional groups of O-H, C-H (aliphatic), C-H (hydrocarbon), C=N, C=O, and C=C. Finally, the IC50 of the ethyl acetate extract on A549 cells was 74.74±5.29 ppm, while on the HeLa cells, it was 79.69±2.54 ppm.
Conclusion: The ethyl acetate extract of Cantigi leaves showed potent in vitro cytotoxic activity on HeLa cervical cancer cells and A549 lung cancer cells.
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