IAI SPECIAL EDITION: Prescription of medicine for outpatients of gynaecology obstetric poly at a private hospital in Semarang, Indonesia


  • Didik Apriyanto Politeknik Katolik Mangunwijaya Semarang, Indonesia
  • Maria Caecilia Nanny Setiawati Sekolah tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Yayasan Pharmasi Semarang, Indonesia




OB/GYN poly, Outpatient, Prescribing, Rational drug use


Background: Rational use of drugs means that patients get the right drug, in the right amount, at the right time, and at the lowest price. The World Health Organizaiton (WHO) issued a guide of the main indicators for the rationale assessment of drug use. These indicators are used as the first line in the assessment of drug use. Prescribing indicators are used to see patterns of drug use and can directly describe inappropriate drug use. This is known as the WHO criteria indicator.

Objective: The purpose of the study was to determine drug prescribing for obsteric gynaecology (OB/GYN) poly outpatients at a private hospital in Semarang in accordance with hospital formulary and pharmacy availability.        

Methods: For this purpose, a descriptive and quantitative survey was conducted. The sample included 251 patients from January 2020. The data were collected retrospectively from the pharmacy's prescriptions.

Results: The average number of drugs prescribed per visit was 2.45. Antibiotics were prescribed in 5.2% of encounters and injections in 0.2 %. 5.7% of drugs prescribed were generic, and 2.8% were from the hospital's formulary. The Pharmacy Installation had 79.6% drug availability. Mineral multivitamins (51.5%), hormonal drugs (20.9%), and antibiotics were the most commonly prescribed drugs (5.2%).

Conclusion: On the basis of the finding of this study, this OB/GYN Hospital still needs to improve the appropriateness with WHO criteria so that the drugs prescribed were rational and can be available.


Agarwal, M., Nayeem, M., Safhi, M., Makeen, H., Sumaily, J., & Gupta, N. (2014). Prescribing pattern of drugs in the department of obstetrics and gynecology in expected mothers in Jazan Region, KSA. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 6, 658–661

Alanazi, M.Q., Salam, M., Alqahtani, F. Y., Ahmed, A.E., Alenaze, A. Q., Al-Jeraisy, M., Al Salamah, M., Aleanizy, F.S., Al Daham, D., Al Obaidy, S., Al-Shareef, F., Alsaggabi, A.H., & Al-Assiri, M.H. (2019). An Evaluation Of Antibiotics Prescribing Patterns In The Emergency Department Of A Tertiary Care Hospital In Saudi Arabia. Infection and Drug Resistance, 12, 3241–3247. https://doi.org/10.2147/IDR.S211673

Atif, M., Azeem, M., Sarwar, M.R., Shahid, S., Javaid, S., Ikram, H., Baig, U., & Scahill, S. (2016). WHO/INRUD prescribing indicators and prescribing trends of antibiotics in the Accident and Emergency Department of Bahawal Victoria Hospital, Pakistan. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 1928. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40064-016-3615-1

Bashrahil, K. (2010). Indicators of rational drug use and health services inHadramout, Yemen. Eastern Mediteranian Health Journal, 16(2), 151-155.

Bhartiy, S.S., Shinde, M., Nandheswar, S., & Tiwari, S.C. (2008). Pattern of prescribing practices in the Madhya Pradesh, India. Kathmandu University Medical Journal, 6(1), 55-59

Cleary, K.L., Siddiq, Z., Ananth, C.V., Wright, J.D., Too, G., D'Alton, M.E., & Friedman, A.M. (2018). Use of Antihypertensive Medications During Delivery Hospitalisations Complicated by Preeclampsia. Obstetrics and Gynecology, 131(3), 441–450. https://doi.org/10.1097/AOG.0000000000002479

Desalegn, A.A. (2013). Assessment of drug use pattern using WHO prescribing indicators at Hawassa University teaching and referral hospital, south Ethiopia: A cross-sectional study. BMC Health Services Research, 13(1), 170. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-13-170

Drugs in Pregnancy—Gynecology and Obstetrics. (n.d.). MSD Manual Professional Edition (online). Available from: https://www.msdmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/drugs-in-pregnancy/drugs-in-pregnancy

Friska, E., Suryoputro, A., & Kusumastuti W. (2019) Analisis Proses Pengadaan Guna Menjamin Ketersediaan Obat di RSUD Tugurejo Semarang, MEDIA KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT INDONESIA, 18(4), 135-139. https://doi.org/10.14710/mkmi.18.4.135-139

Frank, R.G. (2001). Prescription Drug Prices: Why Do Some Pay More Than Others Do? Health Affairs, 20(2), 115–128. https://doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.20.2.115

Iqbal, M.J., Geer, M.I., & Dar, P.A. (2017). Medicines Management in Hospitals: A Supply Chain Perspective. Systematic Reviews in Pharmacy, 8(1), 80–85. https://doi.org/10.5530/srp.2017.1.14

Karki, N., Joshi, R.R., Shrestha, B.K., & Prasad, P. (2019). Drug Utilisation Pattern by Using WHO Core Prescribing Indicators in Orthopedics and Obstetrics / Gynecology Departments of a Tertiary Care Hospital. Journal of Lumbini Medical College, 7(1), 18–23. https://doi.org/10.22502/jlmc.v7i1.280

Kintu, A., Abdulla, S., Lubikire, A., Nabukenya, M. T., Igaga, E., Bulamba, F., Semakula, D., & Olufolabi, A.J. (2019). Postoperative pain after cesarean section: Assessment and management in a tertiary hospital in a low-income country. BMC Health Services Research, 19, 68. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-019-3911-x

Mishore, K.M., Girma, Y., Tola, A., Mekuria, A.N., & Ayele, Y. (2020). Evaluation of Medication Use Pattern Among Patients Presenting to the Emergency Department of Hiwot Fana Specialized University Hospital, Using WHO Prescribing Indicators. Frontiers in Pharmacology, 11, 509. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2020.00509

Modisakeng, C., Matlala, M., Godman, B., & Meyer, J. C. (2020). Medicine shortages and challenges with the procurement process among public sector hospitals in South Africa; findings and implications. BMC Health Services Research, 20(1), 234. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05080-1

Nyabuti, A.O., Okalebo, F.A., & Guantai, E.M. (2020). Examination of WHO/INRUD Core Drug Use Indicators at Public Primary Healthcare Centers in Kisii County, Kenya. Advances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3173847. https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/3173847

Rohra, D.K., Das, N., Azam, S.I., Solangi, N. A., Memon, Z., Shaikh, A.M., & Khan, N.H. (2008). Drug-prescribing patterns during pregnancy in the tertiary care hospitals of Pakistan: A cross sectional study. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 8(1), 24. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2393-8-24

Taniguchi, F., Enatsu, A., Ikebuchi, A., Yamane, E., Moriyama, M., Murakami, J., Harada, T., & Harada, T. (2017). Efficacy of Norethisterone in Patients with Ovarian Endometrioma: Norethisterone for treatment of endometriosis. Yonago Acta Medica, 60(3), 182–185. https://doi.org/10.33160/yam.2017.09.008

van der Gronde, T., Uyl-de Groot, C.A., & Pieters, T. (2017). Addressing the challenge of high-priced prescription drugs in the era of precision medicine: A systematic review of drug life cycles, therapeutic drug markets and regulatory frameworks. PLoS ONE, 12(8). https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182613

Rajkumar, V.S. (2020). The high cost of prescription drugs: Causes and solutions. Blood Cancer Journal, 10(6), 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41408-020-0338-x

WHO (World Health Organization). (1993). How to Investigate Drug Use in health facilities.Geneva: World Health Organization

WHO (World Health Organization). (2009). Medicines Use in Primary Care in Developing and Transitional Countries: Fact Book Summarising Results from Studies Reported between 1990 and 2006.Geneva: World Health Organization

Zhao, Y., Hebert, M. F., & Venkataramanan, R. (2014). Basic obstetric pharmacology. Seminars in Perinatology, 38(8), 475–486. https://doi.org/10.1053/j.semperi.2014.08.011




How to Cite

Apriyanto, D. ., & Setiawati, M. C. N. . (2022). IAI SPECIAL EDITION: Prescription of medicine for outpatients of gynaecology obstetric poly at a private hospital in Semarang, Indonesia. Pharmacy Education, 22(2), p. 184–187. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.222.184187



Special Edition