Educational escape rooms in pharmacy education: A narrative review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.540557

Keywords:

Active learning, Educational game, Escape room, Pharmacy education

Abstract

Background: The pharmacy profession has evolved tremendously, assuming important roles in patient care and often working in multidisciplinary healthcare teams. Educational escape rooms are team-based games delivered in active learning environments that address educational objectives by developing necessary competencies and skills for future pharmacists.  

Methods: This narrative review synthesises current practices and outcomes of educational escape rooms in pharmacy education with the primary aim of helping educators in developing and implementing escape room games. A database search of Web of Knowledge, Scopus, ScienceDirect and Google Scholar identified 1,057 studies.    

Results:  After article screening, twenty studies were included. The majority of the studies (85%) reported the development of escape room games for pharmacy practice and professional development.    

Conclusion:  Educational escape rooms were positively perceived by students, enhancing knowledge and serving as a platform to foster teamwork, communication, and problem-solving skills while applying clinical skills deemed essential in producing competent pharmacists in the 21st century.

Author Biographies

Aisyah Saad Abdul Rahim, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia

Associate Professor - Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy

Mohd Shahezwan Abd Wahab, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia

Faculty of Pharmacy

Aida Azlina Ali, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Puncak Alam Campus, Selangor, Malaysia

Faculty of Pharmacy

Nur Hafzan Md. Hanafiah, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia

School of Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Nybo, S. E., Klepser, S. A., & Klepser, M. (2020). Design of a disaster preparedness escape room for first and second-year pharmacy students. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 12(6), 716–723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.01.037

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Sarage, D., O’Neill, B. J., & Eaton, C. M. (2021). There is no I in Escape: Using an Escape Room Simulation to Enhance Teamwork and Medication Safety Behaviors in Nursing Students. Simulation and Gaming, 52(1), 40–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878120976706

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Sera, L., & Wheeler, E. (2017). Game on: The gamification of the pharmacy classroom. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 9(1), 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2016.08.046

Silva, R. de O. S., Pereira, A. M., Araújo, D. C. S. A. de, Rocha, K. S. S., Serafini, M. R., & de Lyra, D. P. (2021). Effect of Digital Serious Games Related to Patient Care in Pharmacy Education: A Systematic Review. Simulation and Gaming, 52(5), 554–584. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878120988895

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Veldkamp, A., van de Grint, L., Knippels, M. C. P. J., & van Joolingen, W. R. (2020). Escape education: A systematic review on escape rooms in education. Educational Research Review, 31, 100364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100364

Vergne, M. J., Simmons, J. D., & Bowen, R. S. (2019). Escape the Lab: An Interactive Escape-Room Game as a Laboratory Experiment. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(5), 985–991. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b01023

Wilby, K. J., & Kremer, L. J. (2020). Development of a cancer-themed escape room learning activity for undergraduate pharmacy students. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 28(5), 541–543. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12622

Zainuddin, Z., Chu, S. K. W., Shujahat, M., & Perera, C. J. (2020). The impact of gamification on learning and instruction: A systematic review of empirical evidence. Educational Research Review, 30, 100326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100326

Nguyen, C. (2020). The use of serious gaming to assess drug information skills. Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 3(2), 473–477. https://doi.org/10.1002/jac5.1180

Nicholson, S. (2015). Peeking Behind the Locked Door: A Survey of Escape Room Facilities. White Paper, 1–35. http://scottnicholson.com/pubs/erfacwhite.pdf

Niemiec, C. P., & Ryan, R. M. (2009). Autonomy, competence, and relatedness in the classroom: Applying self-determination theory to educational practice. Theory and Research in Education, 7(2), 133–144. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477878509104318

Nybo, S. E., Klepser, S. A., & Klepser, M. (2020). Design of a disaster preparedness escape room for first and second-year pharmacy students. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 12(6), 716–723. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.01.037

Oestreich, J. H., Hunt, B., & Cain, J. (2021). Grant deadline: An escape room to simulate grant submissions. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 13(7), 848–854. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2021.03.013

Plakogiannis, R., Stefanidis, A., Hernandez, N., & Nogid, A. (2020). A heart failure themed escape room approach to enhance pharmacy student learning. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 12(8), 940–944. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2020.04.014

Richter, L. M., & Frenzel, J. E. (2021). Designing an Escape Room to Increase Pharmacy Preceptor Knowledge of the Pharmacists’ Patient Care Process. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 85(1), 8073. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8073

Sarage, D., O’Neill, B. J., & Eaton, C. M. (2021). There is no I in Escape: Using an Escape Room Simulation to Enhance Teamwork and Medication Safety Behaviors in Nursing Students. Simulation and Gaming, 52(1), 40–53. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878120976706

Sawyer, T., Eppich, W., Brett-Fleegler, M., Grant, V., & Cheng, A. (2016). More Than One Way to Debrief: A Critical Review of Healthcare Simulation Debriefing Methods. Simulation in Healthcare, 11(3), 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1097/SIH.0000000000000148

Sera, L., & Wheeler, E. (2017). Game on: The gamification of the pharmacy classroom. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 9(1), 155-159. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2016.08.046

Silva, R. de O. S., Pereira, A. M., Araújo, D. C. S. A. de, Rocha, K. S. S., Serafini, M. R., & de Lyra, D. P. (2021). Effect of Digital Serious Games Related to Patient Care in Pharmacy Education: A Systematic Review. Simulation and Gaming, 52(5), 554–584. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878120988895

Smith, M. M., & Davis, R. G. (2021). Can You Escape? The Pharmacology Review Virtual Escape Room. Simulation and Gaming, 52(1), 79–87. https://doi.org/10.1177/1046878120966363

Soffel, J. (2016). Ten 21st-Century Skills Every Student Needs. World Economic Forum. https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/03/21st-century-skills-future-jobs-students/

Susi, T., Johannesson, M., & Backlund, P. (2007). Serious Games – An Overview. Institutionen för kommunikation och information. https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:2416/fulltext01.pdf

Tercanli, H., Martina, R., Ferreira Dias, M., R., J., Amorim, M., Madaleno, M., Magueta, D., V., & E., Veloso C., Figueiredo, C., Vitória, A., Wakkee, I., Gomes, I., Meireles, G., Daubariene, A., Daunoriene, A., Mortensen, A., Zinovyeva, A., Rivera-Trigueros, I., López Alcarria, A., Rodríguez-Díaz, P., Olvera-Lobo, M.D., Ruiz- Padillo, D.P. And Gutiérr, J. (2021). Educational escape room in practice: Research, experiences and recommendations. UA Editora. https://doi.org/10.34624/rpxk-hc61

Thomas, P. A., Kern, D. E., Hughes, M. T., & Chen, B. Y. (Eds.). (2016). Curriculum development for medical education: A six-step approach (Third edition). Johns Hopkins University Press. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-130-10-199905180-00028

Veldkamp, A., van de Grint, L., Knippels, M. C. P. J., & van Joolingen, W. R. (2020). Escape education: A systematic review on escape rooms in education. Educational Research Review, 31, 100364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100364

Vergne, M. J., Simmons, J. D., & Bowen, R. S. (2019). Escape the Lab: An Interactive Escape-Room Game as a Laboratory Experiment. Journal of Chemical Education, 96(5), 985–991. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jchemed.8b01023

Wilby, K. J., & Kremer, L. J. (2020). Development of a cancer-themed escape room learning activity for undergraduate pharmacy students. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 28(5), 541–543. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12622

Zainuddin, Z., Chu, S. K. W., Shujahat, M., & Perera, C. J. (2020). The impact of gamification on learning and instruction: A systematic review of empirical evidence. Educational Research Review, 30, 100326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2020.100326

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Published

2022-06-11

How to Cite

Abdul Rahim, A. S., Abd Wahab, M. S., Ali, A. A., & Hanafiah, N. H. M. (2022). Educational escape rooms in pharmacy education: A narrative review. Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 540–557. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.540557

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Review