Using multiple lenses to explore how an undergraduate curriculum supports pharmacy students’ patient-centred competency development


  • Trudi Aspden School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Rachael Butler Independent Social Researcher, Auckland, New Zealand
  • Lynne Bye School of Pharmacy, Faculty Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand
  • Lynne Petersen School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand



Competency, , Curriculum mapping, Equity, Patient-centered care, Person-centered care, Pharmacy education


Background: This study explores how a Bachelor of Pharmacy curriculum supports students’ holistic patient-centred competency development.

Methods: This mixed-method exploratory study identified patient-centred care themes through a literature review. The themes were mapped to a curriculum. They also informed staff and student focus groups, and student, intern, and preceptor surveys. Qualitative data were thematically analysed, descriptive statistics were generated from quantitative data and the findings triangulated.

Results: Six themes and 22 subthemes were identified and mapped.  Attributes synthesised from subthemes, were explored via surveys. Eight staff and 20 students participated in four focus groups. The influence of people, immersive learning experiences and learning variety were identified as key facilitators for competency development. 51 students, 18 interns and 51 preceptors completed the questionnaires. The responses validated the themes and attributes and identified curricular strengths and gaps.

Conclusion: A multi-step study incorporating triangulation generated a comprehensive and confirming overview of curriculum components, which led to pharmacy students’ development of patient-centred competencies.

Author Biographies

Trudi Aspden, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Senior lecturer in pharmacy practice

Lynne Bye, School of Pharmacy, Faculty Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Director of Experiential Learning Placements

Lynne Petersen, School of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical and Health Sciences, Auckland, University of Auckland, New Zealand

Programme Director (Bachelor of Pharmacy)


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How to Cite

Aspden, T., Butler, R., Bye, L., & Petersen, L. (2022). Using multiple lenses to explore how an undergraduate curriculum supports pharmacy students’ patient-centred competency development. Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 727–743.



Research Article