Evaluation of the effectiveness and staff acceptance of education strategies to improve medication safety


  • Madeleine Hills King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia
  • Stephanie Wai Khuan Teoh King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2763-1163
  • Tamara Lebedevs King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia




Education, Learning, Medication safety, Microlearning, Pharmacy


Background: The pharmacy department at the study site provides ongoing education on medication safety to the hospital staff through a variety of means.

Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate and compare various forms of education and the clinical impact and satisfaction reported by staff.

Methods: A survey was disseminated to staff across the hospital, and 81 responses were collected.

Results: Staff preferred learning through a combination of teaching methods rather than individual modalities. The majority of respondents stated that they felt their knowledge of medication safety improved after education and that the content was actionable. Most staff also agreed or strongly agreed that education positively impacted their clinical practice. Staff preferences regarding education were also themed around different learning modalities, quick and concise messages, topics of medication updates, and relevance to practice. Preferences of the hospital staff will be aligned with education strategies based on this evaluation.

Author Biographies

Madeleine Hills, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia

Pharmacist - Pharmacy Department

Stephanie Wai Khuan Teoh, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia

Clinical supervisor pharmacist - Pharmacy Department

Tamara Lebedevs, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Western Australia, Australia

Pharmacy Department


Bakkum, M. J., Tichelaar, J., Wellink, A., Richir, M. C., & van Agtmael, M. A. (2019). Digital Learning to Improve Safe and Effective Prescribing: A Systematic Review. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics, 106(6), 1236–1245. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.1549

Balakrishnan, A., Puthean, S., Satheesh, G., M K, U., Rashid, M., Nair, S., & Thunga, G. (2021). Effectiveness of blended learning in pharmacy education: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PloS one, 16(6), e0252461. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0252461

Brooks, H. L., Pontefract, S. K., Vallance, H. K., Hirsch, C. A., Hughes, E., Ferner, R. E., Marriott, J. F., & Coleman, J. J. (2016). Perceptions and Impact of Mandatory eLearning for Foundation Trainee Doctors: A Qualitative Evaluation. PloS one, 11(12), e0168558. https://doi.org/10.1371

Cook, D. A., Levinson, A. J., Garside, S., Dupras, D. M., Erwin, P. J., & Montori, V. M. (2008). Internet-based learning in the health professions: a meta-analysis. JAMA, 300(10), 1181–1196. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.300.10.1181

Coyne, L., Merritt, T. A., Parmentier, B. L., Sharpton, R. A., & Takemoto, J. K. (2019). The Past, Present, and Future of Virtual Reality in Pharmacy Education. American journal of pharmaceutical education, 83(3), 7456. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7456

Efferth, T. (2011) E-Learning in Pharmacology and Pharmacy. Education Sciences, 1(1), 4-14. https://doi.org/10.3390/educ1010004

Enderby, C. Y., Davis, S., Sincak, C. A., & Shaw, B. (2021). Health-system pharmacist preceptor development and educational needs for accessible resources. Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning, 13(9), 1110–1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2021.06.042

Farahani, S., Farahani, I., Burckhardt, B. B., Schwender, H., & Laeer, S. (2020). Self-Instruction Video Versus Face-to-Face Instruction of Pharmacy Students' Skills in Blood Pressure Measurement. Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland), 8(4), 217. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy8040217

Flores-Mateo, G., & Argimon, J. M. (2007). Evidence based practice in postgraduate healthcare education: a systematic review. BMC health services research, 7, 119. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6963-7-119

Gallegos, P. J., Mistry, B., Freshwater, D., & Mullen, C. (2021). Continued professional development: A comparison of online vs. in-person workshops. Currents in pharmacy teaching & learning, 13(7), 770–775. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2021.03.019

George, A., Blaauw, D., Green-Thompson, L., Hajinicolaou, C., Lala, N., Parbhoo, K., Rodda, J., Velaphi, S., Kala, U., Vallabh, P. and Dangor, Z., 2019. (2019). Comparison of video demonstrations and bedside tutorials for teaching paediatric clinical skills to large groups of medical students in resource-constrained settings. International Journal of Educational Technology in Higher Education, 16(1), 1–16. https://doi.org/10.1186/s41239-019-0164-z

Kim, K. J., Kang, Y., & Kim, G. (2017). The gap between medical faculty's perceptions and use of e-learning resources. Medical education online, 22(1), 1338504. https://doi.org/10.1080/10872981.2017.1338504

Lehane, E., Leahy-Warren, P., O'Riordan, C., Savage, E., Drennan, J., O'Tuathaigh, C., O'Connor, M., Corrigan, M., Burke, F., Hayes, M., Lynch, H., Sahm, L., Heffernan, E., O'Keeffe, E., Blake, C., Horgan, F., & Hegarty, J. (2019). Evidence-based practice education for healthcare professions: an expert view. BMJ evidence-based medicine, 24(3), 103–108. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjebm-2018-111019

Lu, F., & Lemonde, M. (2013). A comparison of online versus face-to-face teaching delivery in statistics instruction for undergraduate health science students. Advances in health sciences education: theory and practice, 18(5), 963–973. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10459-012-9435-3

May, N., Young, J., & Gillman, L. (2021). Take 5: Designing and evaluating 5-minute eLearning for busy hospital staff. Focus on Health Professional Education: A Multi-disciplinary Journal, 22(2), 60-71. https://doi.org/10.11157/fohpe.v22i2.505

McNamara, D. A., Rafferty, P., & Fitzpatrick, F. (2016). An improvement model to optimise hospital interdisciplinary learning. International journal of health care quality assurance, 29(5), 550–558. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJHCQA-10-2015-0131

Pharmacy Department. (2020). Annual Report presented at Clinical Governance Committee. Women and Newborn Health Services Western Australia

Roughead, E. E., Semple, S. J., & Rosenfeld, E. (2016). The extent of medication errors and adverse drug reactions throughout the patient journey in acute care in Australia. International journal of evidence-based healthcare, 14(3), 113–122. https://doi.org/10.1097/XEB.0000000000000075

Ryan, G., Lyon, P., Kumar, K., Bell, J., Barnet, S., & Shaw, T. (2007). Online CME: an effective alternative to face-to-face delivery. Medical teacher, 29(8), e251–e257. https://doi.org/10.1080/01421590701551698

Teoh, S. W., & Lebedevs, T. (2018). Using e‐learning and lightning presentations to communicate medication‐related problems. Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 48(2), 173-175. https://doi.org/10.1002/jppr.1348

Tolks, D., Schäfer, C., Raupach, T., Kruse, L., Sarikas, A., Gerhardt-Szép, S., Kllauer, G., Lemos, M., Fischer, M. R., Eichner, B., Sostmann, K., & Hege, I. (2016). An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions. GMS journal for medical education, 33(3), Doc46. https://doi.org/10.3205/zma001045

Vaona, A., Banzi, R., Kwag, K. H., Rigon, G., Cereda, D., Pecoraro, V., Tramacere, I., & Moja, L. (2018). E-learning for health professionals. The Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 1(1), CD011736. https://doi.org/10.1002/14651858.CD011736.pub2

World Health Organization. (2014, February 22). Reporting and learning systems for medication errors; the role of pharmacovigilance centres. 2014. https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789241507943




How to Cite

Hills, M., Teoh, S. W. K., & Lebedevs, T. (2022). Evaluation of the effectiveness and staff acceptance of education strategies to improve medication safety . Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 428–435. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.221.428435



Research Article