Impact of pharmacist-led education on knowledge, adherence, and glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic outpatients


  • Budi Suprapti Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Zamrotul Izzah Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Maria Angelia Yoshida Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Arina Dery Puspitasari Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia
  • Cahyo Wibisono Nugroho Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia



Blood glucose, Compliance, Diabetes, Medication therapy management


Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of a pharmacist-led education programme on knowledge, adherence, and glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic outpatients.

Methods: A prospective cohort study was conducted among adult type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) outpatients. The pharmacist-led education programme was delivered to patients and their family members. Patient knowledge and adherence were assessed using questionnaires. Plasma glucose levels were also monitored during the study.

Results: 26 patients completed the study (median (IQR) age 61.5 (58.3 – 65.0) years, female 57.7%, median (IQR) duration of DM 5.0 (3.0 – 15.0) years). At the end of study, the education programme improved patient’s knowledge by 19.2% (p = 0.409) and medication adherence by 46.1% (p = 0.002). Glycaemic control in fasting plasma and postprandial glucose levels were achieved in 19.2% and 23.1% of patients, respectively.

Conclusion: An education programme led by pharmacists may improve diabetic outpatient’s knowledge, adherence to therapy, and glycaemic control.

Author Biographies

Budi Suprapti, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy

Zamrotul Izzah, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy

Maria Angelia Yoshida, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy,

Arina Dery Puspitasari, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy

Cahyo Wibisono Nugroho, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, Indonesia

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Suprapti, B., Izzah, Z., Yoshida, M. A., Puspitasari, A. D., & Nugroho, C. W. (2022). Impact of pharmacist-led education on knowledge, adherence, and glycaemic control of type 2 diabetic outpatients . Pharmacy Education, 22(1), p. 795–804.



Research Article