A mixed-methods analysis of a collaborative online international pharmacy course
Keywords:Diabetes, Didactic, Intercultural, Internationalisation, Online
Background: Participation in international experiences can promote personal and professional growth, but students in schools of pharmacy may face barriers in pursuing overseas experiences.
Objectives: The objectives of this report are to describe the design, implementation, and student perceptions of an online course co-taught by two schools of pharmacy in different countries for students at both institutions.
Methods: The course was established through an ongoing partnership between the universities and was focused on diabetes based on mutual interest and expertise. The course was offered in a three-hour period weekly using short lectures, small group discussions and projects.
Results: Cross-cultural learning was emphasised by forming student groups with representation from both universities. In a post-course survey and reflection, students reported gaining new knowledge, perspectives, and transferable skills as a result of the international nature of the course.
Conclusion: The online international course broadened students’ views of pharmacists’ roles and strengthened the partnership between the two universities.
AACP (American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy). (2015). Connecting Global/International Pharmacy Education to the CAPE 2013 Outcomes: A Report from the Global Pharmacy Education Special Interest Group (online). Available from: https://www.aacp.org/sites/default/files/2017-10/GPE_CAPE_Paper_November_2015.pdf
Ahmad A., Khan M.U., Nagappa A.N., & Patel I. (2014). Emerging job opportunities for PharmD graduates: looking outside the box. Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Education and Research, 48(4), 6-10. https://doi.org/10.5530/ijper.48.4.2
Al-Dahir, S., Alsharif, N.Z., Gleason, S.E., Tofade, T., Flores, E.K., Katz, M., & Dornblaser, E.K. (2017). Current practices in hosting non-US pharmacy students at US pharmacy schools in experiential clerkships. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(9), 6004. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6004
Allard, M., & Raimi-Abraham, B.T. (2019). Inclusion of pharmacy students in globalization of professional pharmacy practice. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 76(24), 2077–2079. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz242
Alsharif, N.Z. (2017). Purposeful global engagement in pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(10), 6882. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6882
Alsharif, N.Z., Dakkuri, A., Abrons, J.P., Williams, D., Ombengi, D.N., Zheng, H., Al-Dahir, S., Tofade, T., Gim, S., O'Connell, M.B., Ratka, A., & Dornblaser, E. (2016). Current practices in global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences: Home/host country or site/institution considerations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(3), 38. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80338
Anjana, R.M., Deepa, M., Pradeepa, R., Mahanta, J., Narain, K., Das, H.K., Adhikari, P., Rao, P.V., Saboo, B., Kumar, A., Bhansali, A., John, M., Luaia, R., Reang, T., Ningombam, S., Jampa, L., Budnah, R.O., Elangovan, N., Subashini, R., Venkatesan, U., Unnikirishnan, R., Das, A.K., Madhu, S.V.V., Ali, M.K., Pandey, A., Dhaliwal, R.S., Kaur, T., Swaminathan, S., & Mohan, D.; ICMR–INDIAB Collaborative Study Group (2017). Prevalence of diabetes and prediabetes in 15 states of India: results from the ICMR-INDIAB population-based cross-sectional study. The Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology, 5(8), 585-596. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2213-8587(17)30174-2
Bader, L.R., Bates, I., & Galbraith, K. (2020). Trends in advanced practice and specialisation in the global pharmacy workforce: a synthesis of country case studies. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 28(2), 182-190. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12612
Bailey, L.C., & DiPietro Mager, N.A. (2016). Global health education in doctor of pharmacy programs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(4), 71. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80471
Burges, S. & Sievertsen, H.H. (2020). Schools, skills, and learning: The impact of COVID-19 on education (online). VoxEu.org. Available from: https://voxeu.org/article/impact-covid-19-education
Childs-Kean, L. M., Motycka, C., Normann, S. A., & Doty, R. (2019). Fulfilling educational competencies through global pharmacy experiences. Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland), 7(2), 50. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7020050
Dornblaser, E.K., Ratka, A., Gleason, S.E., Ombengi, D.N., Tofade, T., Wigle, P.R., Zapantis, A., Ryan, M., Connor, S., Jonkman, L.J., Ochs, L., Jungnickel, P.W., Abrons, J.P., & Alsharif, N.Z. (2016). Current practices in global/international advanced pharmacy practice experiences: Preceptor and student considerations. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(3), 39. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80339
Egly, C., & Kaakeh,Y. (2018). The pharmaceutical industry: a pharmacy student's guide. Purdue Journal of Service-Learning and International Engagement, 5(1), 16. https://doi.org/10.5703/1288284316836
FIP (International Pharmaceutical Federation). (2013). 2013 FIPEd Global Education Report (online). Available from: https://www.fip.org/files/fip/FIPEd_Global_Education_Report_2013.pdf
Jones, E. (2013). Internationalization and employability: the role of intercultural experiences in the development of transferable skills. Public Money & Management, 33(2), 95-104, https://doi.org/10.1080/09540962.2013.763416
Kim, R.E., Morningstar-Kywi, N., Romero, R.M., Chan, K.M., Gabrielyan, L., Mojab, Y., Parikh, S.S., Nokes, L., Graham, T., & Haworth, I.S. (2021). An online international pharmacy summer course during the COVID-19 pandemic. Pharmacy Education, 20(2), 136-144. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2020.202.136144
Kim, R.E., Morningstar-Kywi, N., & Haworth, I. S. (2021). Integration of clinical and scientific principles in the teaching of drug-drug interactions. Medical Science Educator, 31(6), 2169–2176. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40670-021-01395-8
Miles, M.B., Huberman, A.M. & Saldaña, J. (2020) Qualitative Data Analysis : a Methods Sourcebook. Fourth Edition. SAGE.
More V.N., & Patel P.B. (2019). Need of innovation in pharmacy education: strategies for a better future. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Research, 15(1), 122-134.
Noble, H., & Heale, R. (2019) Triangulation in research, with examples. Evidence-Based Nursing, 22(3), 67-68. https://doi.org/10.1136/ebnurs-2019-103145.
Owen, C., Breheny, P., Ingram, R., Pfeifle, W., Cain, J., & Ryan, M. (2013). Factors associated with pharmacy student interest in international study. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(3), 54. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe77354
Pandey, M.M., Rastogi, S., & Rawat, A.K. (2013). Indian traditional ayurvedic system of medicine and nutritional supplementation. Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: eCAM, 376327. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/376327
Pham, J.T., Azzopardi, L.M., Lau, A.H., & Jarrett, J.B. (2019). Student perspectives on a collaborative international doctorate of pharmacy program. Pharmacy (Basel, Switzerland), 7(3), 85. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy7030085
Pol, R.P., Somade, P.M., Chopade, A.R., Naikwade, N.S., & Dias, R.J. (2017). Current pharmacy curriculum in India and need for an update. International Journal of Life Sciences Scientific Research, 3(6), 1459-1461.
Porselvi, A. (2021). A review on the need of advanced clinical pharmacy education services for diabetes prevention and management in India in comparison with international standards. Research Journal of Pharmacy and Technology, 14(1), 493-500. https://doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2021.00090.1
Prescott, G.M., Vu, B.N., Alsharif, N.Z., & Prescott, W.A. (2017). Global health education in doctor of pharmacy programs in the United States. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(2), 28. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe81228
Rajan, R., Pawar, S., & Dantkale, V. (2020). The pressing need of pharmacists trained for pharmaceutical care in India. The International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 28(2), 200–201. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12544
Rubin, J. (2017). Embedding collaborative online international learning (COIL) at higher education institutions (online). Internationalisation of Higher Education-A Handbook, 2. Available from: http://nebula.wsimg.com/d2cf3c4b5bb2fe256a722a7b040b7812?AccessKeyId=EC053BA31CBDFA636F2B&disposition=0&alloworigin=1
Saavedra, K., O'Connor, B., & Fugh-Berman, A. (2017). Pharmacist-industry relationships. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 25(6), 401-410. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12333
Sahu H., Negi A., Sultan S., Bala N., & Sahu S. (2016). Pharmaceutical education in India: current scenario. International Journal of Development Research, 6(3), 7049-52.
Scott, D.M., Naughton, C., Haugen, K., & Friesner, D.L. (2019). Study abroad course for pre-pharmacy and pharmacy students to learn about global health. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(8), 6866. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe6866
Steeb, D.R., Miller, M.L., Schellhase, E.M., Malhotra, J.V., McLaughlin, J. E., Dascanio, S.A., & Haines, S.T. (2020). Global health learning outcomes in pharmacy students completing international advanced pharmacy practice experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(3), 7586. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7586
Steeb, D.R., Overman, R.A., Sleath, B.L., & Joyner, P.U. (2016). Global experiential and didactic education opportunities at US colleges and schools of pharmacy. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(1), 7. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8017
Stefanile, A. (2020). The transition from classroom to Zoom and how it has changed education. Journal of Social Science Research, 16, 33-40. https://doi.org/10.24297/jssr.v16i.8789
University of Southern California (n.d.). USC School of Pharmacy Presents: Virtual Immersion in Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics Summer Program (online). Available from: https://cpb-us-e1.wpmucdn.com/sites.usc.edu/dist/4/453/files/2021/05/online_material_v2.pdf
Uzman, N., Williams, A.E., Altiere, R.J., Anderson, C., & Bates, I. (2020). Implementing FIP's global pharmaceutical education transformation vision in Sub-Saharan African Countries. Research in Social & Administrative Pharmacy, 16(8), 1131-1135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.12.011
Yarmoshuk, A.N., Cole, D.C., Mwangu, M., Guantai A.N., & Zarowsky, C. (2020). Reciprocity in international interuniversity global health partnerships. Higher Education, 79, 395-414. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10734-019-00416-1
Yi, Z.M., Zhou, L.Y., Yang, L., Yang, L., Liu, W., Zhao, R.S., & Zhai, S.D. (2020). Effect of the international pharmacy education programs: A pilot evaluation based on Kirkpatrick's model. Medicine, 99(27). https://doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000020945
Zhang, X.C., Balakumar, A., Rodriguez, C., Sielicki, A., & Papanagnou, D. (2020). The Zoom picture book game: A creative way to promote teamwork in undergraduate medical education. Cureus, 12(2). https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.6964