What do preceptors want? A mixed methods study exploring pharmacist preceptor perceptions of their training and support needs at a regional Australian University

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.224.718

Keywords:

Community pharmacy, Pharmacy student, Preceptor development, Preceptor role, Preceptor Training, Preceptor support

Abstract

Background: Global demand for work-ready pharmacy graduates has highlighted the role of pharmacy preceptors and the need for training and support from universities. There remains a lack of consensus on the ideal requirements for preceptor training programmes.

Objective: To assess community pharmacy preceptor training and support requirements at a regional Australian University.

Method: A mixed method study using an online survey of community pharmacy preceptors of James Cook University, followed by qualitative semi-structured interviews.

Result: 55 preceptors completed the survey, and ten interviews were conducted. Preferred programme content included role clarification, a curriculum outline and management of poorly performing students. Demands on individuals’ time and workloads support a flexible online approach to training and highlight the importance of institutional support for optimal preceptor engagement and retention.

Conclusion: Good teaching and communication skills were considered by preceptors to be essential for their primary role in linking theory to practice for pharmacy students during experiential placements.

Author Biographies

Gillian Jane Knott, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

College of Medicine and Dentistry

Martina Mylrea, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

College of Medicine and Dentistry

Beverley Glass, James Cook University, Queensland, Australia

College of Medicine and Dentistry

References

ACPE (Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education) (2016). Standards 2016 (online). Available from: https://www.acpeaccredit.org/pdf/Rubric2016Guidelines20bUpdate2021.pdf

AHPRA (Australian Health Practitioner Regulation Agency) (2021). Pharmacy Board of Australia Intern pharmacist and preceptor guide, June 2021. Available from: https://www.pharmacyboard.gov.au/

APC (The Australian Pharmacy Council). (2020) Accreditation Standards for Pharmacy Programs in Australia and New Zealand 2020. Available from: https://www.pharmacycouncil.org.au/standards/

Assemi, M., Corelli, R., & Ambrose, P. (2011). Development needs of volunteer pharmacy practice preceptors. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(1), Article 10

Braun, V., & Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3(2), 77–101. https://doi.org/10.1191/1478088706qp063oa

Bartlett, A.D., Um, I.S., Luca, E.J., Krass, I., & Schneider C. (2020). Measuring and assessing the competencies of preceptors in health professions: a systematic scoping review. BMC Medical Education, 20(1), 165-165. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-020-02082-9

Bochenek, S.H., Fugit, A.M., Cook, A.M., & Smith, K. (2016). Pharmacy residents’ perception of preceptors as role models. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 73 Suppl 3(11 Suppl 3), S94-S99. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp150661

CCAPP (Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs) (2020). Accreditation Standards for the First Professional Degree in Pharmacy Programs. July 2018, Revised 2020 (online). Available from:

https://ccapp.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/July7-CCAPP-Professional-Standards-ENG.pdf

Condrey, T. (2015). Implementation of a preceptor training program. Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing, 46(10), 462-469. https://doi.org/10.3928/00220124-20150918-04

DeAngelis, J.T., & Wolcott, M.D. (2019). A Job Analysis to Define the Role of the Pharmacy Preceptor. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 83(7), Article 7196. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7196

Enderby, C.Y., Davis, S., Sincak, C.A., & Shaw, B. (2021). Health-system pharmacist preceptor development and educational needs for accessible resources. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 13(9), 1110-1120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2021.06.042

Fejzic, J., Henderson, A., Smith, N., & Mey, A. (2013). Community pharmacy experiential placement: Comparison of preceptor and student perspectives in an Australian postgraduate pharmacy programme. Pharmacy Education, 13(1),15-24.

General Pharmaceutical Council of Great Britain Standards New standards for the initial education and training of pharmacists (2021). Available from: https://www.pharmacyregulation.org/initial-training

Kendrick, J., Beauchesne, A., Lee, Y.V., & Carr, R. (2021). Conflict between Pharmacy Preceptors and Pharmacy Learners in Experiential Education. Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 74(1), 36-42. https://doi.org/10.4212/cjhp.v74i1.3044

Knott, G.J., Mylrea, M.F., & Glass, B.D. (2020). A Scoping Review of Pharmacy Preceptor Training Programs. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(10), 1322-1334. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8039

Le, M., Luong, S., Mong, R., Gruenberg, K., & Clinard, C. (2022). Examining participant perceptions of the UCSF school of pharmacy master preceptor program. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning. Advance online publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2022.01.011

Lucas, C., Williams, K., Tudball, J., & Walpola, R. (2018). Community, hospital and industry preceptor perceptions of their role in experiential placements - the need for standardization of preceptor responsibilities and evaluations on students. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(11),1447-1455. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2018.08.002

O’Sullivan, T.A., Lau, C., Patel, M., Mac, C., Krueger, J., Danielson, J., & Weber, W. (2015). Student-Valued Measurable Teaching Behaviors of Award-Winning Pharmacy Preceptors. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 79(10), 1. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7910151

O'Sullivan, T.A., Cox, C.D., Darbishire, P., Dinkins, M.M., Johanson, E., Joseph, A., & Vos, S. (2020). The Status and Adequacy of Preceptor Orientation and Development Programs in US Pharmacy Schools. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 84(2), 7540-7268. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7540

Trc healthcare (n.d.) Pharmacist’s Letter, Therapeutic Research Center (online), Available from: https://trchealthcare.com/pharmacists-letter/

Pharmacy Guild of Australia (n.d.). Preceptor Support and Resources (online). Available from: https://www.guild.org.au/training

Pogge, E.K., Raney, E., Jackowski, R. M., Larson, S., Storjohann, T., & Davis, L. E. (2020). Evaluation of a teaching and learning curriculum for preceptors and residents. Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy, 3(1), 87-94. https://doi.org/10.1002/jac5.1170

Wisneski, S. (2017) Assessing Learner Performance. In Soric, M., Schneider, S., & Wisneski, S. The Effective Clinical Preceptor, 70-72. ASHP Publications, Bethseda MD, American Society of Health System Pharmacists.

Smith, D.V., Gauntreaux, S., Gulbis, A.M., Bruno, J.J., Garey, K., Roux, R.K., & Varkey, D. (2020). Program development of a preceptor bootcamp for operational pharmacy preceptors. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 77(Supplement_1), S2-S7. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz289

Sylvia, L.M. (2019). A lesson in clinical reasoning for the pharmacy preceptor. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 76(13), 944-951. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxz083

Vos, S.S., & Trewet, C.B. (2012). A comprehensive approach to preceptor development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(3), Article 47. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe76347

Walter, S., Mulherin, K., & Cox, C. (2018). A Preceptor competency framework for pharmacists. Part 2 of a 3-part series. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 10(3), 402-410. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cptl.2017.11.018

Wilkinson, S.T., Couldry, R., Phillips, H., & Buck, B. (2013). Preceptor Development: Providing Effective Feedback. Hospital Pharmacy, 48(1), 26-32. https://doi.org/10.1310/hpj4801-26

Young, S., Vos, S.S., Cantrell, M., & Shaw, R. (2014). Factors Associated with Students' Perception of Preceptor Excellence. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 78(3), 53. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe78353

Downloads

Published

2022-09-18

How to Cite

Knott, G. J., Mylrea, M., & Glass, B. (2022). What do preceptors want? A mixed methods study exploring pharmacist preceptor perceptions of their training and support needs at a regional Australian University . Pharmacy Education, 22(4), p. 7–18. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.224.718