What is needed to reform pharmacy education in Jordan: An exploratory study based on a multi-stakeholder perspective


  • Saja A Alnahar Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan & Imperial College London, United Kingdom https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1950-3073
  • Amneh I. AL-Rawashdeh Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
  • Alaa K. Makhzoomy Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan
  • Ian Bates University College London, London, United Kingdom




Curriculum Design, Experiential Training, Jordan, Pharmacy Education, Workforce development


Background: The Jordanian pharmacy profession is facing challenges related to pharmacy education and graduates' readiness to join the workforce. The Jordanian Accreditation and Quality Assurance Commission for Higher Education Institutions has led an initiative to revise undergraduate pharmacy academic programmes.

Aim: This study aims to capture relevant stakeholders' perceptions of factors influencing pharmacy education in Jordan.

Methods: In March 2021, three focus group discussions were conducted with relevant stakeholders. Focus groups were thematically analysed. The "systems model of performance improvement" by Richard A. Swanson was broadly followed to interpret discerned themes.

Results: Thematic analysis resulted in three main themes. The discerned themes represented factors related to education input variables, teaching process variables, and environmental variables.

Conclusion: Teaching and learning processes should be shifted from educator-centred to student-centred. The academic curriculum should reflect the local context of practice and society. Future interventions should follow a holistic and comprehensive approach to reforming Jordan's pharmacy education.

Author Biographies

Saja A Alnahar, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan & Imperial College London, United Kingdom

Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy & Honorary Research Fellow, Department of Primary Care and Public Health, Faculty of Medicine

Amneh I. AL-Rawashdeh, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Department of Educational Administration and Foundations, Faculty of Education

Alaa K. Makhzoomy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, Jordan

Department of Curriculum and Instruction, Faculty of Education

Ian Bates, University College London, London, United Kingdom

School of Pharmacy


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How to Cite

Alnahar, S. A., AL-Rawashdeh, A. I., Makhzoomy, A. K., & Bates, I. (2022). What is needed to reform pharmacy education in Jordan: An exploratory study based on a multi-stakeholder perspective. Pharmacy Education, 22(4), p. 63–72. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2022.224.6372