Assessment of motivation, learning styles and programme selections of Saudi pharmacy and non- pharmacy candidates during the preparatory year

Authors

  • Win Winit-Watjana University of Dammam
  • Mohamed A Baraka University of Dammam
  • Ahmed Mostafa University of Dammam
  • Raniah A Aljaizani University of Dammam

Keywords:

Assessment, Motivation, Learning Styles, Programme Selection, Pharmacy Candidates, Preparatory Year Study, Saudi Arabia

Abstract

Aim: This study was aimed to evaluate the motivation, learning styles and programme selections of pharmacy and non- pharmacy candidates doing the preparatory year.

Method: A questionnaire survey was conducted at the end of the preparatory-year in Dammam University during the Orientation Week in April 2014. Interviews with some students and instructors were also conducted to triangulate the survey data. A semi-structured questionnaire was specially designed, checked for face validity and piloted in students. A chi-squared or t test was utilised to compare the programme selections and relevant variables with the significance level (α) set at 0.05.

Results: A total of 74 pharmacy and 342 non-pharmacy candidates completed the questionnaire. Both groups mostly consisted of males aged 19 (60% – 70%) with the secondary school scores in the range of 96% - 100%. Almost all students could identify their strengths and weaknesses, especially in Chemistry, Physics and English. They felt stressed out and unhappy and needed some advice or counselling. Both contingents had similar motivation and career goals. Top three health-related programmes of choice were Dentistry, Medicine and Applied Medical Sciences. They claimed to have enough information to make a decision and preferred a one-to-one discussion with the programme instructors to get the programme information. Both groups had the same learning styles - ‘Director (or Converger)’ as a dominant (average score: 5.1 vs. 5.2) and ‘Producer (or Assimilator)’ as a secondary style (average score: 4.9 vs. 5.0).

Conclusion: The pharmacy and non-pharmacy candidates have similar perceptions, motivation and learning styles, but marginal differences were found in the programme selections and acquiring information. Pharmacy orientation and counselling sessions are needed to correct their misperception about chemistry and to recruit high-performing students. Pharmacy images and professionalism among preparatory-year and pharmacy students warrant further studies. 

Author Biographies

Win Winit-Watjana, University of Dammam

Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy

Mohamed A Baraka, University of Dammam

Assistant Professor Clinical Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy Practice, College of Clinical Pharmacy

Ahmed Mostafa, University of Dammam

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, College of Clinical Pharmacy

Raniah A Aljaizani, University of Dammam

Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine

References

Al-Wazaify, M., Matowe, L., Albsoul-Younes, A. & Al- Omran, O.A. (2006). Pharmacy education in Jordam, Saudi Arabia, and Kuwait. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(1), 1-4.

Asiri, Y.A. (2011). Emerging frontiers of pharmacy education in Saudi Arabia: The metamorphosis in the last fifty years. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 19, 1-8.

Austin, Z. (2004a). Development and validation of the Pharmacists’ Inventory of Learning Styles (PILS). American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 68(2), 1-10.

Austin, Z. (2004b). Learning styles of pharmacists: Impact on career decisions, practice patterns and teaching method preferences. Pharmacy Education, 4(1), 13-22.

Coffield, F., Moseley, D., Hall, E. & Ecclestone, K., (2004). Learning styles and pedagogy in post-16 learning: A systematic and critical review. Learning and Skills Research Centre, London (on-line). Available at: http:// lerenleren.nu/ bronnen/Learning%20styles%20by %20Coffield%20e.a..pdf. Accessed 28th June, 2014.

Crawford, S.Y., Alhreish, S.K. & Popovich, N.G. (2012). Comparison of learning styles of pharmacy students and faculty members. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 1-6.

Curry, L. (1981). Learning preferences in continuing medical education. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 124, 535-536.

Dopp, A.L., Moulton, J.R., Rouse, M.J. & Trewet, C.B. (2010). A five-state

continuing professional development pilot program for practicing pharmacists. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(2), 1-10.

Eng, J. (2003). Sample size estimation: how many individuals should be studied? Radiol, 227(2), 309-313.

Hastings, J.K., West, D.S. & Hong, S.H. (2005). Changes in pharmacy student motivation during progression through the curriculum. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 69(2), 251-255.

Honey, P. & Mumford, A. (2000). The learning styles helper’s guide. Peter Honey Publications, Maidenhead, UK.

Ibrahim, M.I.M. (2011). Clinical pharmacy education in the Middle East and Asia: Are we doing it right? Journal of Pharmacy Practice and Research, 41(3), 176, 178.

Keshishian, F., Brocavich, J.M., Boone, R.T., Pal, S. (2010). Motivating factors influencing college students’ choice of academic major. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(3), 1-7.

Kheir, N., Zaidan, M., Younes, H., Hajj, M.E., Wilbur, K. & Jewesson, P.J. (2008). Pharmacy education and practice in 13 Middle Eastern countries. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(6), 1-13.

Kolb, D.A. (2000). Facilitator’s guide to learning. Hay Group/McBer, Boston, Massachusetts.

Langley, C.A., Wilson, K.A. & Jesson J.K. (2010). Choosing to study pharmacy: Measuring influences and motivations. Pharmacy Education, 10(2), 1-10.

Loewen, P.S. & Jelescu-Bodos, A. (2013). Learning styles and teaching perspectives of Canadian pharmacy practice residents and faculty preceptors. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 44(8), 1-6.

Perrot, L.J., Deloney, L.A., Hastings, J.K., Savell, S. & Savidge, M. (2001). Measuring student motivation in health professions’ colleges. Advances in Health Sciences Education, 6, 193-203.

Reio, T.G. & Wiswell, A.K., (2006). An examination of the factor structure and construct validity of the Gregorc Style Delineator. Educational & Psychological Measurement, 66, 489-501.

Romanelli, F., Bird, E. & Ryan, M., (2009). Learning styles: A review of theory, applications, and best practices. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(1), 1-5.

Sanderson, I., (2003). Is it ‘what works’ that matters? Evaluation and evidence-based policy making. Research Papers Education, 18(4): 331-345.

Tileston, D.W., (2010). What every teacher should know about student motivation, 2nd ed. Corwin (SAGE), Thousand Oaks, California.

University of Dammam. (2014). Deanship of Preparatory and Support Studies (on-line). Available at: http:// www.ud.edu.sa/DU/en/deanship/preparatory_ss/ index.html. Accessed 28th June, 2014.

Yousif, M.A., Eldalo, A.S., Abd Allah, M.A., Al-Sawat, M.A., Al-Wahaibi, H.M., Al-Osaimi, A.A.S. & Al- Gethami, S.H. (2013). Pharmacy education instruction: Preference and practices, Saudi students’ perception. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, doi:10.1016/j.jsps. 2013.06.005

Zaki, N.M. & Albarraq, A.A. (2013). Use, attitudes and knowledge of medications among pregnancy women: A Saudi study (online copy). Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2013.09.001

Published

16/11/2015

Issue

Section

Research Article