RESEARCH ARTICLE: Development, implementation and evaluation of an innovative, project-based assignment for final year pharmacy students, relating to novel drug delivery systems
Keywords:Australia, Novel drug delivery education, Pharmacy Students
Introduction: Students must efficiently integrate knowledge gained during their training. Application of this knowledge is important when students need to assess novel drug delivery systems (NDDSs). The objective of this study was to explore the impact of a Project-Based Learning (PBL) approach within a fourth-year pharmacy degree as a way of improving the ability of students to become independent researchers and critical thinkers using NDDSs as the subject topic.
Methods: Students chose a NDDS and researched intellectual property, drug pharmacology, design, clinical features, marketing, regulatory and commercial issues. Results were presented in a written report and seminar. Data from student performance in the written and oral components of the assignment and the written questionnaire were collected and analysed.
Results: Students performed well in both the written and oral assessment items, locating relevant information, synthesising a synopsis and presenting the information clearly. Evaluation of individual student responses indicated strong student satisfaction with the new approach across multiple measures. The assignment met its objectives and achieved its learning goals.
Conclusion: The development and implementation of a project-based assignment for final year pharmacy students proved to be highly successful, and a similar approach could be easily implemented by other pharmacy schools.
Ahmad, T. (2018). Teaching evaluation and student response rate. PSU Research Review, 2(3), 206-211. doi: 10.1108/PRR-03-2018-0008
Australian Pharmacy Council. (2020). Accreditation standards and requirements for Pharmacy programs in Australia and New Zealand. Australian Pharmacy Council (online). Available at: https://www. pharmacycouncil.org.au/standards/accreditation- standards-2020.pdf. Accessed 25th January, 2020
Anderson, R.D. (2002). Reforming Science Teaching: What Research Says About Inquiry. Journal of Science Teacher Education, 13(1), 1-12. doi: 10.1023/A:1015171124982
Boyatzis, R.E. (1998). Transforming Qualitative Information: Thermatic Analysis and Code Development. Thousand Oaks, California, USA: Sage Publications Ltd.
Cidell, J. (2010). Content clouds as exploratory qualitative data analysis. Area, 42(4), 514-523. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-4762.2010.00952.x
Clayson, D.E. (2018). Student Evaluation of Teaching and Matters of Reliability. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education, 43(4), 666-681. doi: 10.1080/02602938.2017.1393495
Doneva, R., Denev, D., & Totkov, G. (2006) On the didactic principles, models and E-Learning. International Jornal: Information Theories and Applications, 1-6
English, M.C., & Kitsantas, A. (2013). Supporting Student Self-Regulated Learning in Problem- and Project-Based Learning. Interdisciplinary Journal of Problem-Based Learning, 7(2), 128-150. doi: 10.7771/1541-5015.1339
Green, W.J., Elliot, C., 7 Hays Cummins, R. (2004). “Prompted” Inquiry-Based Learning in the Introductory Chemistry Laboratory. Journal of Chemical Education, 81(2), 239-241. doi: 10.1021/ed081p239
Hornstein, H.A. (2017). Student evaluations of teaching are an inadequate assessment tool for evaluating faculty performance. Cogent Education, 4(1), 1304016. doi: 10.1080/2331186X.2017.1304016
Haworth, I.S., Eriksen, S.P., Chimait, S.H., Matsuda, L.S., McMillan, P.A., King, E.A., Letourneau-Wagner, J., & Shapiro, K. (1998). A problem based Llcarning, Case study approach to pharmaceutics: Faculty and student perspectives. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 62(4), 398-405
Hussain, M., Sahudin, S., Samah, N.H.A., & Anuar, N.K. (2019). Students perception of an industry based approach problem based learning (PBL) and their performance in drug delivery courses. Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal, 27(2), 274-282. doi: 10.1016/ j.jsps.2018.11.009
Johnson, M., & Hayes, M.J., (2016). A comparison of problem-based and didactic learning pedagogies on an electronics engineering course. International Journal of Electrical Engineering Education, 53(1), 3-22. doi: 10.1177/0020720915592012
Kuwaiti, AA., Alquraan, M., & Subbarayalu, A.V. (2016). Understanding the effect of response rate and class size interaction on students evaluation of teaching in a higher education. Cogent Education, 3(1). doi: 10.1080/2331186X.2016.1204082
Likert, R. (1932). A Technique for the Measurement of Attitudes140. Archives of Psychology, 140, 1-55
McKenzie, B., & Brown, A. (2017). Exploring a Problem-Based Learning Approach in Pharmaceutics. Pharmacy, 5(3), 53. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy5030053
Meijerman, I., Storm, G., Moret, E., & Koster, A. (2013). Development and student evaluation of an inquiry-based elective. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 5(1), 14-22. doi: 10.1016/j.cptl.2012.09.009
Norman, G.R., & Schmidt, H.G., (2000). Effectiveness of problem-based learning curricula: theory, practice and paper darts. Medical Education, 34(9), 721-728. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2923.2000.00749.x
Robinson, J.K. (2013). Project-based learning: improving student engagement and performance in the laboratory. Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, 405, 7-13. doi: 10.1007/s00216-012-6473-x
Simon, H., (1996). Observations on the Sciences of Science Learning. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 21(1), 115-121
Slade, P., & McConville, C., (2006). Student Evaluation of Teaching. International Journal for Educational Integrity, 2(2), 43-59.
Sullivan, G., & Artini, A.R., (2013). Analyzing and Interpreting Data From Likert-Type Scales. Journal of Graduate Medical Education, 5(4), 541-42. doi: 10.4300/JGME-5-4-18
Tucker, B.M. (2013). Student evaluation to improve the student learning experience: an Australian university case study. Educational Research and Evaluation, 19(7), 615-627. doi: 10.1080/13803611.2013.834615
Venville, G., & Dawson, V. (2012). The Art of Teaching Science for middle and secondary school. 2ed. Sydney: Allen & Unwin
Zabaleta, F. (2007). The use and misuse of student evaluation of teaching. Teaching in Higher Education, 12(1), 55-76. doi: 10.1080/13562510601102131