RESEARCH ARTICLE: Students’ experiences and engagement in a flipped classroom course on pharmacokinetics

Authors

  • Nina Katajavuori University of Helsinki, Helsinki
  • Henna Asikainen University of Helsinki, Helsinki
  • Unni Tengvall-Unadike University of Eastern Finland
  • Hanna Kortejärvi Finnish Society for Integrative Medicine

Keywords:

Flipped Classroom, Deep-level learning, Pharmacokinetics, Study Performance

Abstract

Objective 

The aim of this study was to examine whether the flipped classroom method enhances the quality of students' learning by exploring the change in students processes of understanding, their relation to study success and students’ experiences of the course.

 

Methods

A mass pharmacokinetics course, comprising second-year pharmacy students was transformed by using the flipped classroom method. Students answered a questionnaire before and after the course to measure their processes of understanding. Students' experiences of the course were examined qualitatively and analyzed using qualitative content analysis. 

Results

Surface-level processing statistically decreased significantly and deep-level processing increased during the course. The number of students scoring low on deep-level processing and high on surface-level processing decreased during the course. Deep-level processing was positively and surface-level processing negatively related to study success in the course. Results showed that pre-lecture tasks supported students’ learning. 

Conclusions

Our study showed that the flipped classroom approach resulted in decreased surface-level and increased deep-level processing. This suggests that the Flipped classroom method can improve students processes of understanding towards better understanding. 

Author Biographies

Nina Katajavuori, University of Helsinki, Helsinki

Faculty of Education, Centre for University Teaching and Learning

Henna Asikainen, University of Helsinki, Helsinki

Faculty of Education, Centre for University Teaching and Learning

Unni Tengvall-Unadike, University of Eastern Finland

School of Pharmacy

References

Ainley, M. (1993). Styles of engagement with learning: Multidimensional assessment of their relationship with strategy use and school achievement. Journal of Educational Psychology, 85(3), 395-405. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.85.3.395

Arrue, M., Ruiz de Alegría, B., Zarandona, J., & Hoyos Cillero, I. (2017). Effect of a PBL teaching method on learning about nursing care for patients with depression Nurse Education Today, 52 (Supp.C), 109-115. doi: 10.1016/j.nedt.2017.02.016

Asikainen, H., & Gijbels, D. (2017). Do students develop more deep approaches to learning during studies? A systematic review on the development of students’ deep and surface approaches to learning in higher education. Educational Psychology Review, 29(2), 205-234. doi: 10.1007/s10648-017-9406-6

Asikainen, H., Parpala, A., Virtanen, V., & Lindblom- Ylänne, S. (2013). The relationship between student learning process, study success and the nature of assessment. A qualitative study. Studies in Educational Evaluation, 39(4), 211-217. doi: 10.1016/j.stueduc. 2013.10.008

Asikainen, H., Salmela-Aro, K., Parpala, A. & Katajavuori, N. (in press). Learning profiles and their relation to study-related burnout and academic achievement among university students. Learning and Individual Differences

Barnett, A., van der Pols, J. & Dobson, A. (2005). Regression to the mean: what it is and how to deal with it. International Journal of Epidemiology, 34(1), 215- 220. doi: 10.1093/ije/dyh299

Becher, T. (1994) The Significance of Disciplinary Differences. Studies in Higher Education, 19(2), 151-161. doi:10.1080/03075079412331382007

Biggs, J. (1996). Enhancing teaching through constructive alignment. Higher Education, 32, 1–18

Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2003). Teaching for Quality Learning at University: What the Student Does, 2nd ed.; Society for Research into Higher Education & Open University Press: Buckingham, UK.

Boshuizen, H., & Schmidt, H. (2008). The development of clinical reasoning expertise. In Clinical reasoning in the health professions (eds. J. Higgs, M. Jones, S. Loftus, N. Christensen), 3rd ed. Amsterdam: Elsevier BH. Pages??

Edginton, A., & Holbrook, J. (2010). A blended learning approach to teaching basic pharmacokinetics and the significance of face-to-face interaction. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(5), Art.88. doi: 10.5688/aj740588

Entwistle, N., & Ramsden, P. (1983). Understanding student learning. London: Croom Helm

Entwistle, N.J., & McCune, V. (2004). The Conceptual Bases of Study Strategy Inventories. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 325–45. doi: 10.1007/ s10648-004-0003-0

Ferreri, S.P., & O'Connor, S.K. (2013). Redesign of a large lecture course into a small-group learning course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(1), 13. doi: 10.5688/ajpe77113

Katajavuori, N., Salminen, O., Vuorensola, K., Huhtala, H., Vuorela, P., & Hirvonen, J. (2017). Competence- Based Pharmacy Education in the University of Helsinki Pharmacy, 5(2), 29. doi: 10.3390/pharmacy5020029

Kyndt, E., Dochy, F., Struyven, K., & Cascallar, E. (2011). The perception of workload and task complexity and its influence on students’ approaches to learning: a study in higher education. European Journal of Psychology of Education, 26(3), 393-415. doi: 10.1007/ s10212-010-0053-2

Lonka, K., Olkinuora, E., & Mäkinen, J. (2004). Aspects and prospects of measuring studying and learning in higher education. Educational Psychology Review, 16(4), 301-325

Lindblom-Ylanne, S., Parpala, A., & Postareff, L. (2013). Challenges in analysing change in students’ approaches to learning. In Learning patterns in higher education. Dimensions and research perspectives (eds. D. Gijbels, V. Doche, J. Richardson & J. Vermunt), New York: Routledge, pp. 232–248

McLaughlin, J.E., Roth, M.T., Glatt, D.M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C.A., Griffin, L.M., Esserman, D.A., & Mumper, R.J. (2014). The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236-43. doi: 10.1097/ACM.0000000000000086

Miles, M.B., & Huberman, A.M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: a sourcebook of new methods. Beverly Hills: Sage

Missildine, K., Fountain, R., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the classroom to improve student performance and satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 597–599.doi: 10.3928/01484834-20130919-03

Nieminen, J., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Lonka, K. (2004). The Development of Study Orientations and Study Success in Students of Pharmacy. Instructional Science, 32(5), 387-417. doi: 10.1023/B:TRUC.0000044642.35553.e5

O'Flaherty J & Phillips G (2015). The use of flipped classrooms in higher education: A scoping review. The Internet and Higher Education 25:85-95. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.iheduc.2015.02.002.

Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Komulainen, E., Litmanen, T., & Hirsto, L. (2010). Students' approaches to learning and their experiences of the teaching-learning environment in different disciplines. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80(Part2), 269-82. doi: 10.1348/000709909X476946

Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Komulainen, E., & Entwistle, N. (2011). Assessing students’ experiences of teaching−learning environments and approaches to learning: Validation of a questionnaire in different countries and varying contexts. Learning Environment Research, 16(2), 201−215. doi: 10.1007/s10984-013-9128-8

Persky, A., & McLaughlin, J.M. (2017). The Flipped Classroom - From Theory to Practice in Health Professional Education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 81(6), 18. doi: 10.5688/ ajpe816118

Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 196. doi: 10.5688/ ajpe7610196

Postareff, L., Parpala, A., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (2015). Factors contributing to changes in a deep approach to learning in different learning environments. Learning Environments Research, 18(3), 315-333. doi: 10.1007/ s10984-015-9186-1

Rytkönen, H., Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Virtanen, V., & Postareff, L. (2012). Factors affecting bioscience students’ academic achievement. Instructional Science, 40(2), 241–256. doi: 10.1007/s11251-011-9176-3

Tynjälä, P. (1999). Towards expert knowledge? A comparison between a constructivist and a traditional learning environment in the university. International Journal of Educational Research, 31(5), 357-442

Varunki, M., Katajavuori, N., & Postareff, L. (2017). First- year students’ approaches to learning, and factors related to change or stability in their deep approach during a pharmacy course. Studies in Higher Education, 42(2), 331-353. doi: 10.1080/03075079.2015.1049140

Vermunt, J., & Verloop, N. (1999). Congruence and friction between learning and teaching. Learning and Instruction, 9(3), 257-280

Zorek, J.A., Sprague, J.E., & Popovich, N.G. (2010). Bulimic learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 74(8), Art.157. doi: 10.5688/aj7408157

Published

24/04/2020

Issue

Section

Research Article