RESEARCH ARTICLE: Qualitative investigation of the flipped classroom teaching approach as an alternative to the traditional lecture
Keywords:Flipped Classroom, Traditional Lecture, Pharmacy Education, Teaching Approach, Pedagogy
Objectives: The study’s objective was to determine students’ perception of the traditional lecture and other methods of teaching and learning the students had already experienced, and to determine students’ expectations and attitude towards the flipped classroom teaching method.
Methods: Two focus groups were conducted with 11 undergraduate pharmacy students in two pharmacy schools in the United Kingdom. Focus groups discussions were audio-recorded, then transcribed verbatim and analysed thematically using the inductive method.
Results: Six key themes were identified: 1) teacher characteristics and competence; 2) having the right tools to learn; 3) learning can be emotional; 4) group work: what is in it for me?; 5) scaffold the delivery of teaching; and 6) to prepare or not to prepare.
Conclusion: The flipped classroom teaching approach was thought to tackle perceived limitations of the traditional lecture including limited student engagement and the inappropriate pace of instructions. It was also deemed to help students understand the taught subject and prepare for summative assessment.
Anderson, W.L., Mitchell, S.M., & Osgood, M.P. (2005). Comparison of student performance in cooperative learning and traditional lecture-based biochemistry classes. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education, 33(6), 387–393. https://doi.org/10.1002/bmb.2005.49403 306387
Biggs, J., & Tang, C. (2011) Teaching for Quality Learning at University - What the Student Does, Clinical infectious diseases: An official publication of the Infectious Diseases
Society of America
Bligh, D. (2000). What’s the use of lectures? 1st ed. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass
Bovill, C., Cook-Sather, A., Felten, P., Millard, L., Moore-Cherry., N.M. (2016). Addressing potential challenges in co-creating learning and teaching: overcoming resistance, navigating institutional norms and ensuring inclusivity in student–staff partnerships. Higher Education, 71(2), 195–208. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/s10734-015-9896-4
Brown, G. (1978) Lecturing and explaining. London: Methuen
Buckridge, M., & Guest, R. (2007). A conversation about pedagogical responses to increased diversity in university classrooms. Higher Education Research & Development, 26(2), 133-146. https://doi.org/10.1080/07294360701310771
Carlsen, B., Glenton, C. (2011). What about N? A methodological study of sample-size reporting in focus group studies. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 11, Art.26. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2288-11-26
Chireshe, R. (2011). Effective and ineffective lecturers: University students’ perspective in Zimbabwe. Anthropologist, 13(4), 265-269. https://doi.org/10.1080/09720073.2011.11891207
Clarke, V. and Braun, V. (2013) Successful Qualitative Research: A Practical Guide For Beginners, Successful Qualitative Research A Practical Guide for Beginners. Sage Publishing, UK.
Cotta, K.I., Shah, S., Almgren, M.M., Macías-Moriarity, L.Z., & Mody, V. (2016). Effectiveness of flipped classroom instructional model in teaching pharmaceutical calculations. Currents in Pharmacy Teaching and Learning, 8(5), 646– 653.
Davies, R.S., Dean, D.L., & Ball, N. (2013). Flipping the classroom and instructional technology integration in a college-level information systems spreadsheet course. Educational Technology Research and Development, 61, 563-580. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11423-013-9305-6
Galway, L.P., Corbett, K.K., Takaro, T.K., Tairyan, K., & Frank, E. (2014). A novel integration of online and flipped classroom instructional models in public health higher education. BMC Medical Education, 14(181). https:// doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-181
Gannod, G.C., Burge, J.E., & Helmick, M.T. (2008). Using the inverted classroom to teach software engineering. Proceedings of the 30th international conference on Software engineering, ICSE ’08, 777-786. https://doi.org/ 10.1145/1368088.1368198
Gilmartin-Thomas, J., Sleath, B., Cooper Bailey, S., Carpenter, D., Chater, A., MacAllister, C., Pyzik, O., Wayman, B., Annis, I. & Smith, F. (2019). Preparing pharmacy students to communicate effectively with adolescents. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 28(2), 134-141. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijpp.12581
GPhC. [General Pharmaceutical Council]. (2011). Future pharmacists: Standards for the initial education and training of pharmacists, London: General Pharmaceutical Council
Gleason, B.L., Peeters, M.,. Resman-Targoff, B.H., Karr, S., McBane, S., Kelley, K., Thomas, T., & Denetclaw, T.H. (2011). An active-learning strategies primer for achieving ability-based educational outcomes.’, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(9), 186. https://doi.org/ 10.5688/ajpe759186
Kember, D., & Leung, D.Y.P. (2005). The influence of active learning experiences on the development of graduate capabilities. Studies in Higher Education, 30(2), 155–170. https://doi.org/10.1080/03075070500043127
Khanova, J., Roth, M.T., Rodgers, J.E., & McLaughlin, J.E. (2015). Student experiences across multiple flipped courses in a single curriculum. Medical Education, 49(10), 1038-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12807
Koo, C.L., Demps, E.L., Farris, C., Bowman, J.D., Panahi, L., & Boyle, P. (2016). Impact of flipped classroom design on student performance and perceptions in a pharmacotherapy course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2), Art.33. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80233
Krueger, R.A. & Casey, M.A. (2015) A Practical Guide for Applied Research, Sage Publications, Inc.
Love, B., Hodge, A., Grandgenett, N., & Swift, A.W. (2014). Student learning and perceptions in a flipped linear algebra course. International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, 45(3), 317-324. https://doi.org/10.1080/0020739X.2013.822582
McLaughlin, J.E., Roth, M.T., Glatt, D.M., Gharkholonarehe, N., Davidson, C.A., Griffin, L.M., Esserman, D.A., & Mumper, R.J. (2014). The flipped classroom: A course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school. Academic Medicine, 89(2), 236-43. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM. 0000000000000086
Missildine, K., Fountain, R.B., Summers, L., & Gosselin, K. (2013). Flipping the Classroom to Improve Student Performance and Satisfaction. Journal of Nursing Education, 52(10), 597-9. https://doi.org/10.3928/01484834-20130919-03
Moravec, M., Williams, A., Aguilar-Roca, N., & O’Dowd, D.K. (2010). Learn before lecture: A strategy that improves learning outcomes in a large introductory biology class. CBE Life Sciences Education, 9(4), 473-81. https://doi.org/10.1187/cbe.10-04-0063
Morss, K. & Murray, R. (2005). Teaching at University: a guide for postgraduates and researchers. Sage Publications Ltd., 1st ed.
Munson, A., & Pierce, R. (2015). Flipping Content to Improve Student Examination Performance in a Pharmacogenomics Course. Americal Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 79(7), Art.103. https:// doi.org/10.5688/ajpe797103
Muzyk, A.J., Fuller, S., Jiroutek, M.R., Grochowski, C.O., Butler, A.C., & May, D.B. (2015). Implementation of a flipped classroom model to teach psychopharmacotherapy to third-year doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) students. Pharmacy Education, 15(1), 44-53
Pierce, R., & Fox, J. (2012). Vodcasts and active-learning exercises in a “flipped classroom” model of a renal pharmacotherapy module. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10). Art.196. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe7610196
Prescott, W.A., Woodruff, A., Prescott, G.M., Albanese, Bernhardi, C., & Doloresco, F. (2016). Introduction and Assessment of a Blended-Learning Model to Teach Patient Assessment in a Doctor of Pharmacy Program. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(10), Art.176. https://doi.org/10.5688/ajpe8010176
Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education. (2002). Subject benchmark statements: Pharmacy. Quality Assurance Agency for Higher Education (online). Available at: https://www.qaa.ac.uk/docs/qaa/subject- benchmark-statements/subject-benchmark-statement- pharmacy-masters.pdf?sfvrsn=f692f681_14. Accessed 22nd May, 2017
Van Dijk, L.A., & Jochems, W.M.G. (2002). Changing a Traditional Lecturing Approach into an Interactive Approach: Effects of Interrupting the Monologue in Lectures. International Journal of Engineering Education, 18(3), 275-284
Zhou, J., Zhou, S., Huang, C., Xu, R., Zhang, Z., & Zeng, S., (2016). Effectiveness of problem-based learning in Chinese pharmacy education: a meta-analysis. BMC Medical Education, 16, Art.23. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-016-0546-z