RESEARCH ARTICLE: Exploring students' perceptions and opinions about an institutional hierarchy of healthcare professionals and its impact on their inter- professional learning outcomes


  • Raiharn Rabani University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
  • Michelle Key University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
  • Hana Morrissey University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom
  • Patrick Ball University of Wolverhampton, United Kingdom



nter-professional Learning, Institutional Hierarchy, Multidisciplinary, Stereotypes, Tribalism


Context: Institutional hierarchy is a phenomenon associated with clinical tribalism. Inter-professional learning is thought to improve a healthcare team's collaboration and communication.

Aim: The aim was to evaluate student understanding of institutional hierarchy and perceptions and opinions on their participation in inter-professional learning.

Method: Using a questionnaire, this study gathered the opinions of fourth year pharmacy students who had completed two inter-professional learning sessions. Quantitative and qualitative analyses were conducted.

Results: Students (87.7%, n=50) were aware of the institutional hierarchy concept, listing the order as doctors, pharmacists, nurses then allied health. 61.4% (n=35) were willing to participate in inter-professional learning sessions. Students (70.1%, n=40) agreed that inter-professional learning sessions have added benefit to patient-centred care, and to understanding different healthcare roles in depth (82.5%, n=47) but failed in diminution of the hierarchical ideology.

Conclusions: Inter-professional learning sessions did not change students' opinions about posiGoning of doctors as the top of the healthcare institutional hierarchy.


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How to Cite

Rabani, R., Key, M., Morrissey, H., & Ball, P. (2021). RESEARCH ARTICLE: Exploring students’ perceptions and opinions about an institutional hierarchy of healthcare professionals and its impact on their inter- professional learning outcomes. Pharmacy Education, 21, p. 19–28.



Research Article