article/article.tpl

Effects of focused continuing pharmacy education on pharmacists’ attitudes toward suicide prevention

Marshall E Cates, Anne-Claire Thomas, Peter J Hughes, Thomas W Woolley

Abstract

Background: Pharmacists are ideally situated to be involved in suicide prevention, but little is known about their

attitudes toward suicide prevention.

Aims: To determine whether continuing pharmacy education (CPE) focused on suicide and its prevention would positively affect pharmacists’ attitudes toward suicide prevention.

Methods: A one-hour presentation on suicide and suicide prevention was developed for a school-sponsored CPE activity. Pharmacists who attended the CPE activity were asked to complete an online survey that included the Attitudes to Suicide Prevention (ASP) scale before and after the educational activity.

Results: The survey was completed by 99/173 (57%) pharmacists before the CPE activity and 87/173 (50%) pharmacists after the CPE activity. The mean ASP total score decreased from 33.1 +/- 4.3 to 30.0 +/- 6.6 (p<0.001), and 6 of 14 individual items were statistically significantly improved.

Conclusion: Focused CPE had a positive impact on pharmacists’ attitudes toward suicide prevention. Future methodologically rigorous studies are warranted. 


Keywords

Attitudes, Continuing Education, Pharmacists, Suicide


Full Text:

PDF

References

American Foundation for Suicide Prevention. (2017). Risk factors and warning signs (online). Available at: https://afsp. org/about-suicide/risk-factors-and-warning- signs/. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

American Public Health Association. (2006). The role of the pharmacist in public health (online). Available at: https:// www.apha.org/policies-and-advocacy/public- health-policy-statements/policy-database/2014/07/07/13/ 05/the-role-of-the-pharmacist-in-public-health. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

Appleby, L., Morriss, R., Gask, L., Roland, M., Perry, B., Lewis, A., Perry, A., Battersby, L., Colbert, N., Green, G., Amos, T., Davies, [?]. & Faragher, B. (2000). An educational intervention for front-line health professionals in the assessment and management of suicidal patients (The STORM Project). Psychological Medicine, 30(4), 805-812.

Blair, R.C. & Higgins, J.J. (1980a). A comparison of the power of Wilcoxon's rank-sum statistic to that of Student's t statistic under various non-normal distributions. Journal of Educational and Behavioral Statistics, 5(4), 309-335.

Blair, R.C. & Higgins, J.J. (1980b). The power of t and Wilcoxon statistics: a comparison. Evaluation Review, 4(5), 645-656.

Blair, R.C. & Higgins, J.J. (1985). Comparison of the power of the paired samples t-test to that of Wilcoxon's signed-ranks test under various population shapes. Psychological Bulletin, 97(1), 119-128.

Board of Pharmacy Specialties. (2017). Psychiatric pharmacy (online). Available at: https://www.bpsweb. org/bps-specialties/psychiatric-pharmacy/. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

Brunero, S., Smith, J., Bates, E. & Fairbrother, G. (2008). Health professionals' attitudes towards suicide prevention initiatives. Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing, 15(7), 588-94.

Calogero, S. & Caley, C.F. (2003). Supporting patients with mental illness: Deconstructing barriers to community pharmacist access. Journal of the American Pharmacists Association, 57(2), 248-255.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2015). Suicide facts at a glance 2015 (online). Available at: https://www. cdc.gov/violenceprevention/pdf/suicide-data sheet-a.pdf. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2017). Fatal injury reports, national, regional and state, 1981-2015 (online). Available at: https://webappa.cdc.gov/sasweb/ncipc/ mortrate.html. Accessed 16th October, 2017.



Collins, S. (2016). New screening and treatment guidelines for adult and adolescent depression. Pharmacy Today, 22(4), 29-30.

Coppens, E., Van Audenhove, C., Iddi, S., Arensman, E., Gottlebe, K., Koburger, N., Coffey, C., Gusmão, R., Quintão, S.,

Costa, S., Székely, A. & Hegerl, U. (2014). Effectiveness of community facilitator training in improving knowledge, attitudes, and confidence in relation to depression and suicidal behavior: results of the OSPI-Europe intervention in four European countries. Journal of Affective Disorders, 165, 142-150.

Gask, L., Lever-Green, G. & Hays, R. (2008). Dissemination and implementation of suicide prevention training in one Scottish region. BMC Health Services Research, 8, 246.

Herron, J., Ticehurst, H., Appleby, L., Perry, A. & Cordingley, L. (2001). Attitudes toward suicide prevention in front-line health staff. Suicide and Life- Threatening Behavior, 31(3), 342-347.

Jacobson, J.M., Osteen, P., Jones, A. & Berman, A. (2012). Evaluation of the recognizing and responding to suicide risk training. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 42(5), 471-485.

Kelling, S.E. (2015). Exploring accessibility of community pharmacy services. Innovations in Pharmacy, 6(3), Article 210.

Kodaka, M., Inagaki, M. & Yamada M. (2013). Factors associated with attitudes toward suicide: among Japanese pharmacists participating in the Board Certified Psychiatric Pharmacy Specialist Seminar. Crisis – The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention, 34(6), 420-427.

Marsden, E. & Torgerson, C.J. (2012). Single group, pre- and post-test research designs: some methodological concerns. Oxford Review of Education, 38(5), 583-616.

Menighan, T.E. (2014). Guest blog post: The important role of the profession in helping to prevent suicides (online). American Pharmacists Association web site. Available at: https://www.pharmacist.com/CEOBlog/ guest-blog-post-important-role-profession-helping- prevent-suicides. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

Murphy, A.L., Gardner, D.M., Chen, T.F., O'Reilly, C. & Kutcher SP. (2015). Community pharmacists and the assessment and management of suicide risk. Canadian Pharmacists Journal: CPJ = Revue des pharmaciens du Canada: RPC, 148(4), 171-175.

O’Reilly, C.L., Bell, J.S. & Chen, T.F. (2010). Pharmacists’ beliefs about treatments and outcomes of mental disorders: a mental health literacy survey. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, 44(12), 1089-1096.

Rubio-Valera, M., Chen, T.F. & O'Reilly, C.L. (2014). New roles for pharmacists in community mental health care: a narrative review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(10), 10967-10990.

Scheerder, G., Reynders, A., Andriessen, K. & Van Audenhove, C. (2010). Suicide intervention skills and related factors in community and health professionals. Suicide and Life- Threatening Behavior, 40(2), 115-124.

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. (2013). Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2011: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits. HHS Publication No. (SMA) 13-4760, DAWN Series D-39. Rockville, MD: Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.

World Health Organization. (2017). Suicide fact sheet (online). Available at: http://www.who.int/mediacentre/ factsheets/fs398/en/. Accessed 16th October, 2017.

Yap, D. (2015). How pharmacists can help patients at risk for suicide (online). American Pharmacists Association web site. Available at: https://www. pharmacist.com/how-pharmacists-can-help-patients-risk- suicide. Accessed 16th October, 2017.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.
article/comments.tpl article/footer.tpl