Pharmacy internship: The royal pathway to practice
Keywords:Assessment, community pharmacy, internship, outplacements, preceptors, pharmacy practice
Introduction: The pharmacy internship offers students the opportunity to interact with patients in the classroom. A project to improve the pharmacy internship, a six-month position in Belgium, has been launched at the Catholic University of Leuven (KULeuven). The aim was to implement self-directed guided learning as a total concept of teaching and learning. The methodology is based upon analysis, intervention and installation of a quality assurance program. Knowledge, skills and attitude are the outcome measures; the acceptance of responsibility is the process to be focused on.
Methods: Interventions consisted of pharmacy visits, local meetings with students and preceptors, development of a multiple step approach and constructing assessment instruments. At the same time networking between preceptors, the university and students was intensified.
Results: After two years, the results of the interventions based upon initial analysis are encouraging.
The skills gained are positively welcomed and used to continuously feed the educational process as necessary.
Blenkinssop, A., & Paxton, P. (1998). Symptoms in the pharmacy: A guide to management of common illness, 3rd ed. (pp. 1–10). London: Blackwell Scientific Publications.
Bologna Process. (2003). Realising the European higher education area. On the Internet: http://www.bologna-berlin2003.de/. Accessed 01/2004.
Dickson, M., & Mendel, P. A. (1984). The effect of the externship on student attitudes toward pharmacy practice. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 48, 158–162.
Godfrey, R. C. (1995). Undergraduate examinations—a continuing tyranny. Lancet, 345, 765–767.
Grant, A., & Dornan, T. L. (2001). What is a learning portfolio? Diabetic Medicine, 18(Suppl. 1), 1–4.
Katajavuori, N., Hirvonen, J., & Lindblom-Yla ̈nne, S. (2003). The development of excellence in pharmaceutical knowledge: New curriculum for the B.Sc. (Pharmacy) studies. Pharmacy Education, 3, 149–160.
Korthagen, F. A. J., & Wubbels, T. (1995). Characteristics of reflective practitioners: Towards an operationalization of the concept of reflection. Teachers and Teaching: Theory and Practice, 1, 51–72.
Kradjan, W. A., Andrews, A., Dawson, K., & Penna, P. (1990). Experiential training for pharmacy students in a managed care system. American Journal of Pharmacy Education, 54, 285–290.
Lawrence, L. W. (2002). Applying case methodology to teach pharmacy administration concepts. Pharmacy Education, 2, 101 – 105.
Popovich, G. P., & Boh, L. E. (1991). A review of the externship experience in pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmacy Education, 55, 181–186.
Raisch, D. W., Holdsworth, M. T., Mann, P. L., & Kabat, H. F. (1995). Incorporating problem-based, student-centered learn- ing into pharmacy externship rotations. American Journal of Pharmacy Education, 59, 265–271.
Shuell, T. J. (1988). The role of the student in learning from instruction. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 13, 276–295.
Shuell, T. J. (1990). Phases of meaningful learning. Review of Educational Research, 60, 531–547.
Sie, D., Bates, I., Aggarwal, R., & Borja-Lopetegi, A. (2003). An analysis of the New UK Master of Pharmacy degree programme: Rhetoric and reality. Pharmacy Education, 3, 169–175.
Stufflebeam, D. L. (2002). The CIPP model for evaluation. In International handbook for educational evaluation. Part I (pp. 31–62). Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.
Taylor, K. M. G., & Harding, G. (2002). Teaching, learning and research in McSchools of Pharmacy. Pharmacy Education, 2, 43–49.
Vanderveen, R. P., Haxby, D. G., West, T., & Schuff, R. (1995). Student activity analysis of an externship program using multidimensional work sampling. American Journal Pharmacy Education, 59, 137–142.
Van der Vleuten, C. P. (1996). The assessment of professional competence: Developments, research and practical implications. Advances in Health Science Education, 1, 41–67.
Verstraeten, A., & Laekeman, G. (2003). On the Internet: www.kuleuven.ac.be/stage/stagegids.pdf. Accessed 07/2004 Stage in de apotheek (internship in the pharmacy)