Augmented reality and gamification in pharmacy education: A call for implementation in African countries and other low resource settings


  • Yusuf Babatunde University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Moriam Adesola Adegbite University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Habeebullah Jayeola Oladipo University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Jeremiah Oluwamayowa Omojuyigbe Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria
  • Eniola Sampson-Oladipupo University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Aishat Abiodun Ibrahim University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Blessing Oziama University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Oluwakorede Adedeji University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria
  • Abdulmumin Damilola Ibrahim University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria



Africa, Augmented reality, Gamification, Implementation, Low resource setting, Pharmacy education


Background: Augmented reality (AR) and gamification, which involve the use of mobile devices, tablets, and laptops to enhance learning experiences, are relatively new in tertiary education. This article calls for the implementation of AR and gamification in pharmacy education in African countries and other low-resource settings.

Method: A search strategy was conducted using the following keywords: ‘gamification’, ‘augmented reality’, ‘game-based learning’, ‘pharmacy education’, ‘African Countries’ and ‘low resource settings’ on PubMed, PubMed Central and Google Scholar databases.

Results: Pharmacy students in African countries and other low resources settings face challenges which include: a limited number of lecturers, underdeveloped infrastructure, paucity of knowledge, and restricted educational resources coupled with a lack of pedagogy related to teaching courses. Incorporation of AR and gamification systems into their learning process will enhance student motivation and understanding.

Conclusion: Pharmacy schools and concerned stakeholders in African countries and other low-resource settings should consider the rapidly evolving technology by developing appropriate and productive AR and game-based learning concepts that would enhance learning experiences, given its numerous benefits.

Author Biographies

Yusuf Babatunde, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Moriam Adesola Adegbite, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Habeebullah Jayeola Oladipo, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Jeremiah Oluwamayowa Omojuyigbe, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmacy

Eniola Sampson-Oladipupo, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Aishat Abiodun Ibrahim, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Blessing Oziama, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Oluwakorede Adedeji, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences

Abdulmumin Damilola Ibrahim, University of Ilorin, Ilorin, Nigeria

Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences


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How to Cite

Babatunde, Y., Adegbite, M. A., Oladipo, H., Omojuyigbe, J., Sampson-Oladipupo, E., Ibrahim, A., Oziama, B., Adedeji, O., & Ibrahim, A. (2023). Augmented reality and gamification in pharmacy education: A call for implementation in African countries and other low resource settings. Pharmacy Education, 23(1), p. 7–17.