Affixes are essential tools when teaching and studying pharmacological drug classes
Keywords:Affixes, Health Professions Students, Pharmacology Study Guide, Pharmacy Educators
Introduction: The study of pharmacology involves considerable memorisation of drug classes, individual drug names, and mechanisms of action, as well as other characteristics including side effects, drug interactions, and therapeutic uses. The voluminous memorisation involved in basic and clinical pharmacology represents a challenging task, especially considering the continuous rate at which new drugs enter the market, and given that generic and trade names often are used interchangeably.
Description of Educational Tool (Pharmacology Guide): Our comprehensive table consists of common affixes and roots of generic drugs that we have found beneficial to the study and retention of pharmacology. Our table includes important aspects of over fifty different drug classes including prototypes, mechanisms of action, and pertinent references.
Evaluation: Qualitative feedback indicates that students readily adopt this organised approach of using common affixes and roots when studying pharmacological drug classes.
Future Plans: Pharmacology educators and students at various institutions worldwide should benefit from this organised approach for teaching and learning pharmacological information. As well, it is anticipated that new editions of this table can be readily adapted to parallel the continuous emergence of new drugs and drug classes.
Appiah-Ankam, J. & Hunter, J.M. (2004) Pharmacology of neuromuscular blocking drugs. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain, 4, 2-7.
Biek, D., Critchley, I.A., Riccobene, T.A. & Thye, D.A. (2010) Ceftaroline fosamil: a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin with expanded anti-Gram-positive activity. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 65(Suppl. 4), iv9-16.
Bovill, J.G. (1987) Which potent opioid? Important criteria for selection. Drugs, 33, 520-30.
Bowdle, T.A. (1998) Adverse effects of opioid agonists and agonist-antagonists in anaesthesia. Drug Safety, 19, 173-89.
Brown, N.J. & Vaughan, D.E. (1998) Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors. Circulation, 97, 1411-1420.
Brunton, L.L., Chabner, B.A. & Knollmann, B.C. (2011) Goodman & Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Burian, M. & Geisslinger, G. (2005) COX-dependent mechanisms involved in the antinociceptive action of NSAIDs at central and peripheral sites. Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 107, 139-54.
Burnier, M. (2001) Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers. Circulation, 103, 904-12.
Butterworth, J.F.T. & Strichartz, G.R. (1990) Molecular mechanisms of local anesthesia: a review. Anesthesiology, 72, 711-34.
Campo-Soria, C., Chang, Y. & Weiss, D.S. (2006) Mechanism of action of benzodiazepines on GABAA receptors. British Journal of Pharmacology, 148, 984-90.
Chopra, I. & Roberts, M. (2001) Tetracycline antibiotics: mode of action, applications, molecular biology, and epidemiology of bacterial resistance. Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, 65, 232-60
Collin, F., Karkare, S. & Maxwell, A. (2011) Exploiting bacterial DNA gyrase as a drug target: current state and perspectives. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 92, 479-97.
Davis, B.D. (1987) Mechanism of bactericidal action of aminoglycosides. Microbiological Reviews, 51, 341-50.
De Clercq, E. (2004) Antivirals and antiviral strategies. Nature Reviews Microbiology, 2, 704-20.
Der, G. (2003) An overview of proton pump inhibitors. Gastroenterology Nursing, 26, 182-90.
Drake, M.T., Clarke, B.L. & Khosla, S. (2008) Bisphosphonates: mechanism of action and role in clinical practice. Mayo Clinic Proceedings, 83, 1032-45.
Edwards, D.I. (1993) Nitroimidazole drugs--action and resistance mechanisms. I. Mechanisms of action. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 31, 9-20.
Fareed, J., Jeske, W.P., Hoppensteadt, D.A. & Walenga, J.M. (2006) Update on the clinical applications of argatroban. Future Cardiology, 2, 403-14.
Feighner, J.P. (1999) Mechanism of action of antidepressant medications. Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, 60 (Suppl. 4), 4-11.
Franks, N.P. (2008) General anaesthesia: from molecular targets to neuronal pathways of sleep and arousal. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 370-86.
Gan, T.J. (2005) Selective serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists for postoperative nausea and vomiting: are they all the same? CNS Drugs, 19, 225-38.
Gewirtz, D.A. (1999) A critical evaluation of the mechanisms of action proposed for the antitumor effects of the anthracycline antibiotics adriamycin and daunorubicin. Biochemical Pharmacology, 57, 727-41.
Ghannoum, M.A. & Rice, L.B. (1999) Antifungal agents: mode of action, mechanisms of resistance, and correlation of these mechanisms with bacterial resistance. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 12, 501-17.
Giraldo, J., Martin, M., Campillo, M. & Pardo, L. (1992) Theoretical studies on the histamine H2 receptor: molecular mechanism of action of antagonists. Molecular Pharmacology, 42, 373-81.
Gotink, K.J. & Verheul, H.M. (2010) Anti-angiogenic tyrosine kinase inhibitors: what is their mechanism of action? Angiogenesis, 13, 1-14.
Hirsh, J., Anand, S.S., Halperin, J.L. & Fuster, V. (2001) Mechanism of action and pharmacology of unfractionated heparin. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 21, 1094-6.
Iijima, K., De Wachter, S. & Wyndaele, J.J. (2007) Effects of the M3 receptor selective muscarinic antagonist darifenacin on bladder afferent activity of the rat pelvic nerve. European Urology, 52, 842-7.
Istvan, E.S. & Deisenhofer, J. (2001) Structural mechanism for statin inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase. Science, 292, 1160-4.
Ito, K., Lim, S., Caramori, G., Cosio, B., Chung, K.F., Adcock, I.M. & Barnes, P.J. (2002) A molecular mechanism of action of theophylline: Induction of histone deacetylase activity to decrease inflammatory gene expression. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99, 8921-6.
Kanoh, S. & Rubin, B.K. (2010) Mechanisms of action and clinical application of macrolides as immunomodulatory medications. Clinical Microbiology Reviews, 23, 590-615.
Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B. & Trevor, A.J. (2012) Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, New York: McGraw-Hill Medical.
Lee, H.M., Weinstein, J.N., Meller, S.T., Hayashi, N., Spratt, K.F. & Gebhart, G.F. (1998) The role of steroids and their effects on phospholipase A2. An animal model of radiculopathy. Spine, 23, 1191-6.
Loscher, W. & Rogawski, M.A. (2012) How theories evolved concerning the mechanism of action of barbiturates. Epilepsia, 53(Suppl. 8), 12-25.
Mason, R.P., Giles, T.D. & Sowers, J.R. (2009) Evolving mechanisms of action of beta blockers: focus on nebivolol. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology, 54, 123-8.
Nair, V.P. & Hunter, J.M. (2004) Anticholinesterases and anticholinergic drugs. Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain, 4, 164-168.
Nash, D.T. (1990) Alpha-adrenergic blockers: mechanism of action, blood pressure control, and effects of lipoprotein metabolism. Clinical Cardiology, 13, 764-72.
Nurden, P., Clofent-Sanchez, G., Jais, C., Bermejo, E., Leroux, L., Coste, P. & Nurden, A.T. (2004) Delayed immunologic thrombocytopenia induced by abciximab. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 92, 820-8.
Opie, L.H. (1997) Pharmacological differences between calcium antagonists. European Heart Journal, 18(Suppl. A), A71-9.
Perzborn, E., Roehrig, S., Straub, A., Kubitza, D., Mueck, W. & Laux, V. (2010) Rivaroxaban: a new oral factor Xa inhibitor. Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, 30, 376-81.
Rosen, R.C. & Kostis, J.B. (2003) Overview of phosphodiesterase 5 inhibition in erectile dysfunction. American Journal of Cardiology, 92, 9M-18M.
Schallreuter, K.U., Gleason, F.K. & Wood, J.M. (1990) The mechanism of action of the nitrosourea anti-tumor drugs on thioredoxin reductase, glutathione reductase and ribonucleotide reductase. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, 1054, 14-20.
Seeman, P. (2002) Atypical antipsychotics: mechanism of action. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 27-38.
Shore, S.A. & Drazen, J.M. (2003) Beta-agonists and asthma: too much of a good thing? Journal of Clinical Investigation, 112, 495-7.
Skold, O. (2000) Sulfonamide resistance: mechanisms and trends. Drug Resistance Updates, 3, 155-160.
Smith, U. (2001) Pioglitazone: mechanism of action. International Journal of Clinical Practice, 13-8.
Tepper, S.J., Rapoport, A.M. & Sheftell, F.D. (2002) Mechanisms of action of the 5-HT1B/1D receptor agonists. Archives of Neurology, 59, 1084-8.
van Zwieten, P.A. (1992) Comparative mechanisms of action of diuretic drugs in hypertension. European Heart Journal, 13(Suppl G), 2-4.
Vena, G.A. & Cassano, N. (2007) Drug focus: adalimumab in the treatment of moderate to severe psoriasis. Biologics: Targets and Therapy, 1, 93-103.
Weaver, B.A. & Cleveland, D.W. (2005) Decoding the links between mitosis, cancer, and chemotherapy: The mitotic checkpoint, adaptation, and cell death. Cancer Cell, 8, 7-12.
Weitz, J.I., Stewart, R.J. & Fredenburgh, J.C. (1999) Mechanism of action of plasminogen activators. Thrombosis and Haemostasis, 82, 974-82.
Wess, J., Eglen, R.M. & Gautam, D. (2007) Muscarinic acetylcholine receptors: mutant mice provide new insights for drug development. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, 6, 721-33.
Wilkinson, D.G., Francis, P.T., Schwam, E. & Payne-Parrish, J. (2004) Cholinesterase inhibitors used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease: the relationship between pharmacological effects and clinical efficacy. Drugs & Aging, 21, 453-78.
Yocum, R.R., Rasmussen, J.R. & Strominger, J.L. (1980) The mechanism of action of penicillin. Penicillin acylates the active site of Bacillus stearothermophilus D-alanine carboxypeptidase. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 255, 3977-86.