Total flavonoid content and in vitro study on the sunscreen activity of extracts of leaves of Elaeocarpus floribundus blume


  • Rahayu Utami Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia
  • Raynaldi Syahputra Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia
  • Rahma Dona Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia
  • Haiyul Fadhli Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia
  • Mustika Furi Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia
  • Ihsan Ikhtiarudin Sekolah Tinggi Ilmu Farmasi Riau, Riau, Indonesia



3-benzophenone, Elaeocarpus floribundus, Quercetin, Sun protecting factor, Total flavonoid content


Background: Elaeocarpus floribundus blume leaves have traditionally been used to treat a variety of diseases; Its hot water infusion is used as a gargle to treat inflamed gums and relieve rheumatoid arthritis. Furthermore, previous research has shown that its methanol extract contains a high level of total phenolic content.

Objective: To determine the total flavonoid content (TFC) of E.floribundus leaves extracts and to conduct preliminary research on their sunscreen activity.

Method: This plant's dried-bulk leaves were macerated in three different solvents, n-hexane, ethylacetate, and methanol, in that order. The TFC of all extracts was determined using a colorimetric method with AlCl3 as the reagent and quercetine as the standard. In contrast, sunscreen activity was assessed by determining the value of the Sun Protection Factor (SPF) using a UV-Vis spectrophotometer and 3-benzophenone as the positive control.

Result: The results indicated that the n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts contained 35.58 ± 1.87 mgQE/g extract, 60.59 ± 0.53 mgQE/g extract, and 149.28 ± 0.89 mgQE/g extract, respectively. With SPF values of 45.470; 44.791; 43.754; 38.861 and 21.102 for tested concentrations of 1000; 800; 600; 400 and 200 mg/mL, respectively, methanol extract demonstrated the highest potential for sun protection activity. However, this activity was not more potent than 3-benzophenone, which had an SPF value of 22,647 at a concentration of 50 mg/mL.

Conclusion: The methanol extract of E. floribundus blume's leaves had the highest total flavonoid content and the greatest potential for sun protection among the tested extracts.


Bubols, G.B., da Rocha Vianna, D., Medina-Remon, A., von Poser, G., Lamuela-Raventos, R.M., Eifler-Lima, V.L., & Garcia, S.C. (2013). The Antioxidant Activity of Coumarins and Flavonoids. Mini-Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry, 13(3).

Cefali, L.C., Ataide, J.A., Moriel, P., Foglio, M.A., & Mazzola, P.G. (2016). Plant-based active photoprotectants for sunscreens. In International Journal of Cosmetic Science, 38(4).

Dutra, E.A., Oliveira, D.A.G. da C., Kedor-Hackmann, E.R.M., & Santoro, M.I.R.M. (2004). Determination of sun protection factor (SPF) of sunscreens by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Revista Brasileira de Ciências Farmacêuticas, 40(3), 381–385.

Liu, H., Song, Y., & Zhang, X. (2017). Determination of total flavonoids in leek by AlCl3 colorimetric assay. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 59, 775–780.

Nagula, R.L., & Wairkar, S. (2019). Recent advances in topical delivery of flavonoids: A review. In Journal of Controlled Release, 296.

Roslim, D.I., Khumairoh, S., & Herman, H. (2016). Confirmation of Tuntun Angin (Elaeocarpus floribundus) Taxonomic Status Using matK and ITS Sequences. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3), 392-399.

Sami, F.J., Nur, S., & Martani, M.M. (2015). Uji Aktivitas Tabir Surya ada pada Beberapa Spesies dari Family Zingiberaceae dengan Metode Spektrofotometri. Jurnal Ilmiah As-Syifaa, 7(2), 164-73.

Utami, R., Khalid, N., Sukari, M.A., Rahmani, M., Abdul, A.B., & Dachriyanus. (2013). Phenolic contents, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume. Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 26(2), 245-50.

Wiart, C. (2006). Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific (1st edition). CRC Press.

Zaman, S. (2016). Exploring the Antibacterial and Antioxidant Activities of Eaelocarpus floribundus Leaves. Indonesoan American Journal Pharmaceutical Sciences, 3(2), 92-7.




How to Cite

Utami, R., Syahputra, R., Dona, R., Fadhli, H., Furi, M., & Ikhtiarudin, I. (2023). Total flavonoid content and in vitro study on the sunscreen activity of extracts of leaves of Elaeocarpus floribundus blume. Pharmacy Education, 23(2), p. 118–121.



Special Edition