The case of clinical training for International Pharmacists in Canada: A comparative educational and policy analysis
Keywords:International pharmacist, Pharmacy education, Pharmacy practice, Pharmacy profession, Policy analysis
Background: The passing rate for International Pharmacists is much lower than that of domestic pharmacy graduates in the licensing examination in Canada. This study aimed to examine differences in policies and educational infrastructure systems integrated that help shape advanced clinical training for International Pharmacists in the different provinces.
Method: This study used a comparative policy analysis of regulations governing International Pharmacists in three provinces, including Ontario, Alberta, and British Columbia.
Results: When examining current integration systems in these provinces, differences in clinical training period requirements become apparent. For example, Alberta and British Columbia have already started efforts towards better integration frameworks in clinical training for international pharmacists. However, there is a need for more unified and inclusive measures towards the integration of international experiences within the Canadian pharmacy practice system across all three provinces.
Conclusion: The Canadian model lacks a clinical training period before the qualifying examination, unlike other models around the world.
Alberta College of Pharmacy. (2019). Structured practical training for pharmacists. https://abpharmacy.ca/structured-practical-training-pharmacists
Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of Canada. (2010). Educational outcomes for first professional degree programs in pharmacy (entry-to-practice pharmacy programs) in Canada. https://www.afpc.info/sites/default/files/AFPC%20Educational%20Outcomes.pdf
Austin, Z., & Rocchi Dean, M. (2006). Bridging education for foreign-trained professionals: The International Pharmacy Graduate (IPG) Program in Canada. Teaching in Higher Education, 11(1), 19–32. https://doi.org/10.1080/13562510500400081
Austin, Z., & Ensom, M. H. (2008). Education of pharmacists in Canada. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(6), 128. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7206128
Australian Pharmacy Council. (2019). APC Skills assessment. https://www.pharmacycouncil.org.au/pharmacist/skills-assessment/
Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programmes. (2014). Annual Report and Directory Of Accredited Programs 2014-2015. https://ccapp.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/10/2014-2015-CCAPP-Annual-Report-1.pdf
Canadian Council for Accreditation of Pharmacy Programmes. (2020). Accreditation standards for the first professional degree in pharmacy programs. https://ccapp.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/12/Dec16-CCAPP-International-Standards-ENG-1.pdf
Canadian Pharmacists Association. (2009). Blueprint for pharmacy: Implementation plan. Blueprint for Pharmacy. https://www.pharmacists.ca/cpha-ca/assets/File/pharmacy-in-canada/blueprint/Blueprint%20Implementation%20Plan_FINAL%20-%20March%202010.pdf
Canadian Pharmacists Association. (2019). Pharmacists' expanded scope of practice. https://www.pharmacists.ca/pharmacy-in-canada/scope-of-practice-canada/
College of Pharmacists of British Columbia. (2020). Registration committee policy. https://library.bcpharmacists.org/3_Registration_Licensure/5098-Reg_Committee_Policy_RCP.pdf
Creswell, J. W., & Poth, C. N. (2017). Qualitative Inquiry and Research Design: Choosing Among Five Approaches (4th edition). SAGE Publications, Inc.
General Pharmaceutical Council. (2018, September 13). Council meeting. https://www.pharmacyregulation.org/sites/default/files/document/2018-09_council_papers_for_website_3_with_addition.pdf
General Pharmaceutical Council. (n.d.). Overseas-qualified pharmacists. Retrieved August 13, 2023, from https://www.pharmacyregulation.org/registration/registering-pharmacist/overseas-non-eea-qualified-pharmacists
Hall, K., Musing, E., Miller, D. A., & Tisdale, J. E. (2012). Experiential training for pharmacy students: Time for a new approach. The Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 65(4), 285–293. https://doi.org/10.4212/cjhp.v65i4.1159
Hawthorne, L. (2013, July). Recognizing foreign qualifications: Emerging global trends. Washington, DC, Migration Policy Institute. https://www.migrationpolicy.org/research/recognizing-foreign-qualifications-emerging-global-trends
International Pharmaceutical Federation (2012). Pharmacy education taskforce: A global competency framework version 1. The Hague: FIP. https://www.fip.org/files/fip/PharmacyEducation/GbCF_v1.pdf
International Pharmaceutical Federation (2014). Quality assurance of pharmacy education: The fip global framework | 2nd Edition. The Hague: FIP. https://www.fip.org/files/fip/PharmacyEducation/Quality_Assurance/QA_Framework_2nd_Edition_online_version.pdf
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2018a). Annual report to parliament on immigration 2018. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/annual-report-2018.pdf
Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada. (2018b). Departmental plan 2018–2019. https://www.canada.ca/content/dam/ircc/migration/ircc/english/pdf/pub/dp-pm-2018-2019-eng.pdf
Kehrer, J. P., Schindel, T. J., & Mann, H. J. (2010). Cooperation in pharmacy education in Canada and the United States. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(8), 142. https://doi.org/10.5688/aj7408142
Leslie Dan Faculty of Pharmacy. (2019). The international pharmacy graduate program. https://www.pharmacy.utoronto.ca/programs/international-pharmacy-graduate-program
Maxwell, J. A. (2009). Designing a qualitative study. In The SAGE Handbook of Applied Social Research Methods. SAGE Publications, Inc. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781483348858
Merriam, S. B., & Tisdell, E. J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation (4th edition). John Wiley & Sons.
Mulherin, K. (2016). Canadian experiential education project for pharmacy. Priority 1-7 Appendices. Windpharm Consulting for the Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of Canada (AFPC). https://www.afpc.info/system/files/public/CanExEd%20Appendices%20February%202016.pdf
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. (2019a). The FPGEC certification program. https://nabp.pharmacy/programs/foreign-pharmacy/fpgee/
National Association of Boards of Pharmacy. (2019b). North American pharmacist licensure examination passing rates for 2017 - 2019 graduates per pharmacy school.
National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. (2014). Professional competencies for canadian pharmacists at entry to practice. https://napra.ca/wp-content/uploads/2022/09/NAPRA-Comp-for-Cdn-PHARMACISTS-at-Entry-to-Practice-March-2014-b.pdf
National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. (2019). Pharmacists' Gateway Canada for International Pharmacists. http://www.pharmacistsgatewaycanada.ca/
National Association of Pharmacy Regulatory Authorities. (2021). Pilot program to prepare for practical training (P4T). https://www.pharmacistsgatewaycanada.ca/pharmacy-practice/p4t/
Ontario College of Pharmacists. (2019). Practice assessment of competence at entry (PACE). http://www.ocpinfo.com/registration/registration-requirements/pace-2/
Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada. (2018). Examination scoring and results.
Pharmacy Examining Board of Canada. (n.d.). Document evaluation‒General information. Retrieved August 13, 2023, from https://www.pebc.ca/index.php/ci_id/3114/la_id/1.htm
Pope, C., Ziebland, S., & Mays, N. (2000). Qualitative research in health care. Analysing qualitative data. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 320(7227), 114–116. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.320.7227.114
Scheckelhoff, D. J., Bush, C. G., Flynn, A. A., Myers, C. E., Kahaleh, A. A., Knapp, K. K., & Thompson, B. J. (2008). Capacity of hospitals to partner with academia to meet experiential education requirements for pharmacy students. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy, 65(21), e53–71. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp080150e
Stake, R.E. (1995). The art of case study research. Sage Publications Inc.
Statistics Canada. (1987). List of Canadian hospitals/ statistics Canada, health division, health care section: Health care facilities. Health Care Section. Government of Canada.
The Statista Country Reports. (2019). Number of immigrants in Canada in 2019, by province or territory of residence. https://www.statista.com/statistics/444906/number-of-immigrants-in-canada/
United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. (2017). International migration report 2017: Highlights (ST/ESA/SER. A/404). United Nations. https://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2017_Highlights.pdf
University of Alberta. (2022). Faculty of pharmacy and pharmaceutical sciences. https://www.ualberta.ca/pharmacy/index.html
University of British Columbia. (2019). Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences. https://pharmsci.ubc.ca/
University of British Columbia. (2022). Faculty of pharmaceutical sciences. International pharmacy graduate (ipg).
Yin, R.K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Sage Publications Inc.