A Large Group Hybrid Lecture and Problem-based Learning Approach to Teach Central Nervous System Pharmacology within the Third Year of an Integrated Masters Level Pharmacy Degree Course
Keywords:Problem-based learning, Self-directed learning, Pharmacy, Pharmacology, Clinical case study, Alzheimer's disease
This study developed a hybrid lecture and problem- based learning (PBL) methodology to teach a large group of third-year undergraduate pharmacy students, the topic of Alzheimer’s disease and its pharmacological treatment. A combination of two introductory lectures and a structured medical case history PBL task, with guided study, were used as learning materials. At the completion of the PBL task, a lecturer-chaired whole group interactive discussion summarized the task outcomes. Qualitative and quantitative evaluations of the student’s experiences with the PBL task, as compared to traditional lecture style information delivery, were then collected by means of a nine-item questionnaire. Most students made favorable comments concerning the PBL task, ranking it highly in terms of its ability to improve overall learning, and aid retention by providing a relevant learning context. Statistical analysis of age effects on task perceptions, demonstrated that mature students (>26 years), far preferred this mode of teaching to traditional lecture delivery, as compared to younger (20–25 years) students.
Albanese, M.A. and Mitchell, S. (1993) “Problem-based learning: a review of literature on its outcomes and implementation issues”, Acad. Med. 68(1), 52–81.
Barlow, J.D. (1997) “Learning skills and skills for learning”, Educational Dilemmas: Debate and Diversity Reforms in higher education, (Cassell, London) Vol. 2, pp 57–66.
Barrows, H.S. (1993) “A taxonomy of problem-based learning methods”, Med. Teacher 5, 291–309.
Barrows, H.S. and Tamblyn, R.M. (1976) “An evaluation of problem-based learning in small groups using a simulated patient”, J. Med. Educ. 51, 52–54.
Barrows, H.S. and Tamblyn, R.M. (1980) Problem-based learning: an approach to medical education (Springer Publishing Co., New York).
Barrows, H.S., Myers, A.C., Williams, R.G. and Moticka, E.J. (1986) “Large group problem-based learning: a possible solution for the 2 sigma problem”, Med. Teacher 8(4), 325–331.
Berkson, M. (1993) “Problem-based learning: have the expec- tations been met?”, Acad. Med. 68, S79–S88.
Birch, S. (1986) “Towards a model for problem-based learning”, Stud. Higher Educ. 11(1), 73–82.
Bligh, D.A. (1998) What’s the Use of Lectures? (Direct Design Products, Hants).
Bloom, B.S., ed, (1956) Taxonomy of Educational Objectives: The Classification of Educational Goals. Handbook 1: Cognitive Domain (MacKay, New York).
Bloom, B.S. (1984) “The 2 sigma problem: the search for methods of group instruction as effective as one-to-one tutoring”, Educ. Res. 13(6), 4–16.
Brookfield, S.D. (1986) Understanding and Facilitating Adult Learning: A Comprehensive Analysis of Principles and Effective Practices (Open University Press, Milton Keynes).
Brown, G. (1978) Lecturing and Explaining (Meuthen, London). Christensen, C.P. (1981) The Case System in Medicine (Harvard Business School, Division of Research, Boston).
Donabedian, A. (1966) “Evaluating the Quality of Medical Care”, Milbank Meml. Fund Q. 44, 166–206.
Entwhistle, N. (1981) Styles of Learning and Teaching an Integrated Outline of Educational Psychology for Students, Teachers and Lecturers (Wiley, Chichester).
Kolb, D.A. (1984) Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development (Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).
Kujdych, N. (1999) “Annie get your gun. . . A three-session problem-based learning case focusing on migraine headaches for fifth-year doctor of Pharmacy students”, J. Clin. Problem-based Learn. 2, 3–42.
Margetson, D.B. (1991) “Is there a future for problem-based education?”, Higher Educ. Rev. 23(2), 33–47.
Margetson, D.B. (2000) “Depth of understanding and excellence of practice: the question of wholeness and problem-based learning”, J. Evaluation Clin. Pract. 6(3), 293–303.
Marton, F. and Salijo, T. (1976) “On qualitative differences in learning: outcome and process”, Br. J. Educ. Psychol. 46, 4–11.
Maudsley, G. (2001) “What issues are raised by evaluating problem-based undergraduate medical curricula? Making healthy connections across the literature”, J. Evaluation Clin. Pract. 7(3), 311–324.
Mierson, S. (1998) “A problem based learning course in physiology for undergraduate and graduate basic science students”, Adv.Physiol. Educ. 20(1), S16–S27.
Morgan, A. (1993) Improving your students learning: reflections on the experience of study (Kogan Page, London).
Moss, G.D. and McMillan, D. (1980) “A strategy for developing problem-solving skills in large undergraduate classes”, Stud. Higher Educ. 5(2), 161–171.
Norman, G.R. (1988) “Problem-solving skills, solving problems and problem-based learning”, Med. Educ. 22, 279–286.
Norman, G.R. and Schmidt, H.G. (1992) “The psychological basis of problem-based learning: a review of the evidence”, Acad. Med. 67, 557–565.
Norman, G.R. and Schmidt, H.G. (1993) “Where is the learning in problem-based learning?”, Pedagogue 4(No. 2)(1), 4–6.
O’Neill, P.A., Metcalfe, D. and David, T.J. (1999) “The core content of the undergraduate curriculum in Manchester”, Med. Evaluation 33(2), 121–129.
Parikh, A., McReelis, K. and Hodges, B. (2001) “Student feedback in problem based learning: a survey of 103 final year students across five Ontario medical schools”, Med. Educ. 35, 632–636.
Prosser, M. and Trigwell, K. (1999) Understanding Learning and Teaching (Kogan Page, London).
Resnik, L.B. (1989) Education and Learning How to Think (National Academic Press, Washington, DC).
Sadlo, G. (1995) “Problem-based learning”, Tertiary Educ. News 5(6), 8–10.
Schon, D.A. (1983) The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think in Action (Temple Smith, London).
Sinnot, J. (1988) Everyday Problem Solving (Praeger, New York).
Vernon, D.T.A. and Blake, R.L. (1993) “Does problem-based learning work? A meta-analysis of evaluative research”, Acad. Med. 68(7), 550–563.
Walton, H.J. and Matthews, M.B. (1989) “Essentials of problem-based learning”, Med. Educ. 23, 542–558.
Woods, D.R. (1993a) “Problem-solving—where are we now?”, J. Coll. Sci. Teaching 22, 312–314.
Woods, D.R. (1993b) “Problem-solving—what doesn’t seem to work”, J. Coll. Sci. Teaching 23, 57–58.
Woods, D.R. (1993c) “On the learning in problem-based learning”, Pedagogue 4(2), 2–3.