Knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian final-year pharmacy students towards genital warts and practice regarding human papillomavirus vaccine: A cross-sectional study
Keywords:Attitude, Genital wart, Human papillomavirus, Knowledge, Pharmacy student
Background: Genital warts are clinical presentations of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. The study evaluated the knowledge and attitudes of Nigerian final year pharmacy students towards genital warts and practice regarding the HPV vaccine.
Methods: Data for this cross-sectional study were collected from February 2022 to April 2022 with a 31-item structured self-administered questionnaire and analysed using IBM SPSS Version 25.0. Pearson’s Chi-Square was used to test the association between variables. Statistical significance was set as p < 0.05.
Results: The study enrolled 620 respondents from 15 universities in Nigeria. Overall, slightly above half of the respondents had good knowledge of genital warts (n=344, 55.5%). More than half of them had favourable attitudes towards genital warts (n=422, 68.1%). Few respondents reported that they had been vaccinated against genital warts (n=12, 1.9%).
Conclusion: The study revealed that final year pharmacy students in Nigeria showed good knowledge and favourable attitudes towards genital warts and human HPV prevention, which did not translate into good practice. It highlights the need for interventions that would promote good practices towards genital warts prevention.
Adebajo, S. B., Nowak, R. G., Adebiyi, R., Shoyemi, E., Ekeh, C., Ramadhani, H. O., Gaydos, C. A., Ake, J. A., Baral, S. D., Charurat, M. E., & Crowell, T. A. (2022). Prevalence and factors associated with anogenital warts among sexual and gender minorities attending a trusted community health center in Lagos, Nigeria. PLOS Global Public Health, 2(11), e0001215. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pgph.0001215
Akinremi, T. A., Akinbode, B. M., Adeleke, H. A., Afolabi, A., & Folorunsho, O. H. (2018). Impact of Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) on academic performance of Business Education students (A case study of University of Lagos and Lagos State University). Retrieved June 19, 2023, from https://www.academia.edu/44842027/impact_of_students_industrial_work_experience_scheme_siwes_on_academic_performance_of_business_education_students_a_case_study_of_university_of_lagos_and_lagos_state_university
Amorha, K. C., Okpe, C. L., & Dim, O. F. (2018). Knowledge, attitudes and perceived practice towards asthma among pharmacy students in Southern Nigeria. International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 10(11), 28–34. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijpps.2018v10i11.27404
Amukugo, H. J., Rungayi, B. R., & Karera, A. (2018). Awareness, knowledge, attitude and practices regarding human papilloma virus among female students at the University of Namibia. International Journal of Healthcare, 4(2), 51–57. https://doi.org/10.5430/ijh.v4n2p51
Anene-Okeke, C. G., Aluh, D. O., & Okorie, U. H. (2019). Knowledge, attitudes and practice of cervical cancer prevention among student health professionals in Nigeria. Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Care, 4(4), 125–130. https://doi.org/10.31557/apjcc.2019.4.4.125-130
Ashaka, O. S., Omoare, A. A., James, A. B., Adeyemi, O. O., Oladiji, F., Adeniji, K. A., Okunade, K. S., & Agbede, O.O. (2022). Prevalence and risk factors of genital Human Papillomavirus infections among women in Lagos, Nigeria. Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease, 7(11), 386. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed7110386
Aşkın, Ö. (2017). Anogenital HPV. In Z. Kutlubay & S. Serdaroglu (Eds.), Fundamentals of sexually transmitted infections. IntechOpen. https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.70017
Barnard, M., George, P., Perryman, M. L., & Wolff, L. A. (2017). Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine knowledge, attitudes, and uptake in college students: Implications from the precaution adoption process model. PLoS One, 12(8), e0182266. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0182266
Bruni, L., Diaz, M., Barrionuevo-Rosas, L., Herrero, R., Bray, F., Bosch, F. X., de Sanjosé, S., & Castellsagué, X. (2016). Global estimates of human papillomavirus vaccination coverage by region and income level: A pooled analysis. Lancet Global Health, 4(7), e453–e463. https://doi.org/10.1016/s2214-109x(16)30099-7
Choudhary, G., Jodha, B. S., Sharma, C., Parakh, P., Yadav, K., & Goel, K. (2018). Knowledge of HPV and attitude towards HPV vaccination among medical students of Jodhpur, Rajasthan. International Journal of Medical and Health Research, 4(3), 94–97. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/326692811_Knowledge_of_HPV_and_attitude_towards_HPV_vaccination_among_medical_students_of_Jodhpur_Rajasthan
Dareng, E. O., Adebamowo, S. N., Famooto, A., Olawande, O., Odutola, M. K., Olaniyan, Y., Offiong, R. A., Pharaoh, P. P., & Adebamowo, C. A. (2019). Prevalence and incidence of genital warts and cervical Human Papillomavirus infections in Nigerian women. BMC Infectious Diseases, 19(1), 27. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-018-3582-y
El-Hamd, M. A., & Aboeldahab, S. (2018). A clinicodemographic analysis of patients with genital warts treated at Sohag University Hospital, Egypt. Journal of Integrative Nephrology and Andrology, 5(2), 74. https://doi.org/10.4103/jina.jina_8_18
Jin, S. W., Lattimore, D. C., Harlin, E., Davis, L., Erholtz, V., & Brandt, H. M. (2023). Medical and public health professionals’ perceived facilitators and barriers of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among African American adolescents in Shelby County, Tennessee. BMC Health Services Research, 23, 469. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-023-09415-6
Kim, E. J., Lee, J. C., Lyu, D. H., Choi, U., Choi, J. B., Kim, K. S., Park, B. H., Kim, S., Lee, S., Han, C. H., & Bae, S. (2023). Trends of genital wart in Korea according to treatment method classification: Big data analysis of health care in 2010–2019. Investigative and Clinical Urology, 64(1), 56–65. https://doi.org/10.4111/icu.20220318
Leslie, S. W., Sajjad, H., & Kumar, S. (2023). Genital warts. In StatPearls. StatPearls Publishing. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK441884/
Liu, Y., Di, N., & Tao, X. (2020). Knowledge, practice and attitude towards HPV vaccination among college students in Beijing, China. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 16(1), 116–123. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1638727
Ndikom, C. M., & Oboh, P. I. (2017). Perception, acceptance and uptake of Human papillomavirus vaccine among female adolescents in selected secondary schools in Ibadan, Nigeria. African Journal of Biomedical Research, 20(3), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.4314/ajbr.v20i3
Ohihoin, A. G., Okwuraiwe, P. A., Musa, A. Z., Olorunfemi, G., Onwuamah, C. K., Ige, F., Amoo, O. S., Audu, R., Okogbo, F., Daniyan, B., Swende, T., Onyemelukwe, G. C., Daru, H., Usman, H., Shittu, O., Musa, J., Ezechi, O. C., & Ujah, I. A. (2022). Prevalence and predictors of high-risk HPV in Nigeria. Advances in Infectious Diseases, 12(4), 745–757. https://doi.org/10.4236/aid.2022.124052
Oluwole, E. O., Idowu, O. M., Adejimi, A. A., Balogun, M. R., & Osanyin, G. E. (2019). Knowledge, attitude and uptake of human papillomavirus vaccination among female undergraduates in Lagos State, Nigeria. Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care, 8(11), 3627–3633. https://doi.org/10.4103/jfmpc.jfmpc_520_19
Onah, P. O., Kaigama, A., & Idoko, C. C. (2023). Public health information needs of urban residents: An opportunity to promote pharmacists role in community health. Open Access Research Journal of Multidisciplinary Studies, 05(01), 007–18. https://doi.org/10.53022/oarjms.2023.5.1.0062
Raosoft. (2004). Sample size calculator. Raosoft, Inc. Retrieved September 3, 2023, from http://www.raosoft.com/samplesize.html
Shetty, S., Prabhu, S., Shetty, V., & Shetty, A. K. (2019). Knowledge, attitudes and factors associated with acceptability of human papillomavirus vaccination among undergraduate medical, dental and nursing students in South India. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 15(7-8), 1656–1665. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2019.1565260
Yin, G., Zhang, Y., Chen, C., Ren, H., Guo, B., & Zhang, M. (2021). Have you ever heard of Human Papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine? The awareness of HPV vaccine for college students in China based on meta-analysis. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 17(8), 2736–2747. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2021.1899731
Yuan, J., Ni, G., Wang, T., Mounsey, K., Cavezza, S., Pan, X., & Liu, X. (2018). Genital warts treatment: Beyond imiquimod. Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics, 14(7), 1815–1819. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645515.2018.1445947