Assessment of stress among pharmacy educators: Validation of the faculty stress index and 2-year cross-sectional follow-up in a Lebanese pharmacy school


  • Samar Younes School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon & Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon
  • Fouad Sakr School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon & Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon & UMR U955 INSERM, Institut Mondor de Recherche Biomédicale, Université Paris-Est Créteil, France & École Doctorale Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé, Université Paris-Est Créteil, France
  • Nisreen Mourad School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon & Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon
  • Mohamad Rahal School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon
  • Mariam Dabbous School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon
  • Jihan Safwan School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon & Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon
  • Marwan Akel School of Pharmacy, Lebanese International University, Bekaa, Lebanon & Institut National de Santé Publique, d’Épidémiologie Clinique et de Toxicologie-Liban (INSPECT-LB), Beirut, Lebanon & School of Education, Lebanese International University, Beirut, Lebanon
  • Dalal Hammoudi Halat Academic Quality Department, Qatar University, Doha, Qatar



Assessment, Coping, Faculty stress index, Pharmacy, Validation


Background: Exploring faculty stress and coping strategies among pharmacy educators has not been previously addressed among Lebanese pharmacy schools. The study’s aim was to validate the Faculty Stress Index (FSI) among pharmacy educators and to assess stress and coping strategies in a school of pharmacy in Lebanon.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a self-administered web-based questionnaire.

Results: The FSI structure was validated with factor analysis. All items had good factor loading that ranged from 0.561 to 0.926. All models were verified to be adequate with satisfactory KMO measures of sampling adequacy and a significant Bartlett’s test of sphericity with p < 0.001. FSI reliability was confirmed by the very good to excellent Cronbach’s alpha values for each stress area that ranged from 0.851 to 0.972. Faculty members had mean total stress scores of 129.43 (±56.90) and 115.59 (±57.34) over 2 academic years, respectively, with higher scores indicating more stress. The greatest stress areas were Time Constraint and Satisfaction with Online Courses. Spending time with family, spirituality, and getting enough sleep were the stress coping strategies considered by the majority of faculty members.

Conclusion: This study provided a watchful apprehension of stress levels and key areas precipitating stress among pharmacy educators.


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How to Cite

Younes, S., Sakr, F., Mourad, N., Rahal, M., Dabbous, M., Safwan, J., Akel, M., & Hammoudi Halat, D. (2023). Assessment of stress among pharmacy educators: Validation of the faculty stress index and 2-year cross-sectional follow-up in a Lebanese pharmacy school. Pharmacy Education, 23(1), p. 539–553.



Research Article