What denotes progression in laboratory learning? Analysing a pharmaceutical bachelor programme


  • Jonas Tarp Jørgensen Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Rie Hjørnegaard Malm Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Bente Gammelgaard Department of Pharmacy, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
  • Frederik Voetmann Christiansen Department of Science Education, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark




Laboratory teaching and learning, Learning outcome, Progression, SOLO, Student perspective, Teacher perspective


Background: This article explores learning progression within laboratory education. It aims to delineate the characteristics of learning progression across cognitive, social, and affective learning domains and on a structural programme level.

Methods: The study employs a longitudinal approach involving interviews conducted over one academic year to assess progression. It also analyses programme and course descriptions for the third year in the pharmaceutical bachelor’s programme. The empirical material underwent further analysis, focusing on perceptions of learning and utilising the Structure of the Observed Learning Outcome (SOLO) taxonomy.

Results: The study shows that both instructors and students perceive learning progression as evolving from structured coursework to more autonomous thesis projects. The synthesis of the analysis indicates that intended learning outcomes represent a progression in five distinct clusters of learning outcomes. The study thereby contributes to understanding the connection between course activities, the intention of a bachelor’s project, and learning progression and prompts questions on how to design for progression in higher education.

Conclusion: This study presents empirically derived learning outcomes that demonstrate the progression of laboratory-based learning outcomes, highlighting independence as a crucial element.


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How to Cite

Jørgensen, J. T., Malm, R. H., Gammelgaard, B., & Christiansen, F. V. (2024). What denotes progression in laboratory learning? Analysing a pharmaceutical bachelor programme. Pharmacy Education, 24(1), p. 200–212. https://doi.org/10.46542/pe.2024.241.200212



Research Article