Barriers and enablers of medication safety: A qualitative study from public hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria


  • Basira Kankia Lawal Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Management, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
  • Shafiu Mohammed Health Systems and Policy Research Unit, Ahmadu Bello University, Nigeria & Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • Aliyu A Alhaji Department of Community Medicine, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • Bilkisu Bello Maiha Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, Nigeria
  • Muhammad Awwal Ladan Department of Nursing Sciences, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria
  • Umar Idris Ibrahim Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Besut Campus, Terengganu, Malaysia



Medication safety, Patient safety, Safety culture


Background: There has been a growing concern for patient safety in recent years. Little is known about medication safety in Nigeria. Anecdotal evidence has indicated widespread medication errors and insufficient error reporting in healthcare facilities.

Aim: This study aimed to explore the factors affecting medication safety in selected public health facilities in Kaduna State, Nigeria.

Methods: Semi-structured interviews (using a topic guide) were conducted with fifteen (15) purposively sampled healthcare providers (doctors, nurses, and pharmacists) in two hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria. The data were both inductively and deductively analysed using content analysis.

Results: Themes relating to factors affecting medication safety were mapped onto the Vincent multi-level framework. Interview data revealed 30 subthemes as factors affecting patient safety, and respondents also suggested improvements in several areas, including attitudes, training, and education.

Conclusion: Factors affecting medication safety were identified, as was the need for prioritising patient safety by regulatory agencies and practitioners.


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How to Cite

Lawal, B. K., Mohammed, S., Alhaji, A. A., Maiha, B. B., Ladan, M. A., & Ibrahim, U. I. (2024). Barriers and enablers of medication safety: A qualitative study from public hospitals in Kaduna State, Nigeria. Pharmacy Education, 24(1), p. 322–331.



Research Article