Achievement Motivation and Self-efficacy Perception Amongst Portuguese Pharmacy Students
Keywords:Achievement, Motivation, Pharmacy, Self-efficacy, Students
AbstractPortuguese pharmacy education is undergoing a process of change and the present curriculum of the Lisbon Faculty of Pharmacy (FFUL) is under active discussion. Programs can be better developed to simultaneously achieve learning objectives and students’ success. Previous research has found students’ goal orientation to be consistent with their beliefs about how success is achieved. This work aimed at measuring dimensions of Achievement Motivation (Task Orientation, Ego Orientation and Work Avoidance) and Self-efficacy Perception amongst a sample of 1st and 5th year Portuguese pharmacy students, including those from a private college (ISCS). Both scales, previously used for educational research in Portugal, confirmed the three motivational dimensions and the self-efficacy construct, through Principal Component Analysis and internal consistency testing. Preliminary analysis showed behavioural differences between first and final year students within FFUL and ISCS. These results suggest that a curriculum reform needs to entail not only the update of subject content but also the customisation of teaching and learning methods according to years of academic experience.
Ashton, P.T. and Webb, R.B. (1986) Making a Difference: A Teacher’s Sense of Efficacy and Student Achievement (Longman, New York).
Bandura, A. (1977a) Social Learning Theory (Prentice-hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).
Bandura, A. (1977b) “Self Efficacy”, Psychological Review 84(2).
Bandura, A. (1986) Social Foundations of Thought and Action: A Social
Cognitive Theory (Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ).
Batcock, A. and Smithers, A.G. (1969) “Success and failure among social scientists and health scientists at a Technological University”, British Journal of Educational Psychology 40(2), 144 – 153.
Cerdeira, J.P. and Palenzuela, D.L. (1998) “Perceived self-efficacy
expectancy: Portuguese version of a specific scale for academic situations”, Revista Portuguesa de Educacao 11(1), 103 – 112.
Duda, J.L. and Nicholls, J.G. (1992) “Dimensions of achievement motivation in schoolwork and sport”, Journal of Education Psychology 84(3), 290–299.
Duda, J.G., Patashnick and Nolen, S.B. (1985) “Adolescent’s theories of education”, Journal of Educational Psychology 77(6), 683 – 692.
Ferguson, J.A., Roller, L. and Wertheimer, A.I. (1986) “Social factors motivating students toward a career in pharmacy”, Journal of Social and Administrative Pharmacy 3(4), 126–135.
Ford, M.E. (1992) “Motivating humans: goals, emotions and personal agency beliefs”, In: Pintrich, P.R., ed, Student motivation, Cognition and Learning (Harcourt, Brace Johanovich Publishers, Orlando, Florida).
Hastings, J.K., West, D.S., Perrot, L.J. and Deloney, L.A. (2001) “Pharmacy student motivation: phase 1 of a longitudinal study”, American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 65(3), 254 – 258.
Markus, H. and Nurius, P. (1986) “Possible selves”, In: Pintrich, P.R., ed, Student motivation, Cognition and Learning (Harcourt, Brace Johanovich Publishers, Orlando, Florida) 115, p 138.
Markus, H. and Wurf, E. (1987) “The dynamic self self-concept: a social self-concept”, In: Pintrich, P.R., ed, Student motivation, Cognition and Learning (Harcourt, Brace Johanovich Publish- ers, Orlando, Florida), p 115.
McKeachie, et al. (1985) “Teaching learning strategies”, In: Pintrich, P.R., ed, Student motivation, Cognition and Learning (Harcourt, Brace Johanovich Publishers, Orlando, Florida), p 114.
Nicholls, J.G. (1983) “Conceptions of ability and achievement motivation: a theory and its implications for education”, Learning and Motivation in the Classroom (Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ), pp 211–237.
Nicholls, J.G., Cheung, P.C., Lauer, J. and Patashnick, M. (1989) “Individual differences in academic motivation: perceived ability, goals, beliefs, and values”, Learning and Individual Differences 1, 63–84.
Nicholls, J.G., Cobb, P., Wood, T. and Patashnick, M. (1990) “Assessing students’ theories of success in mathematics: individual and classroom differences”, Journal for Research in Mathematics education 21, 109–122.
Sa ́, I (1999). Questiona ́rio “Percepco ̃ess de successo.” Ser Caloiro na Universidade de Lisboa. Relato ́ rio do Programa de Investigac ̧a ̃o Integrada da Universidade de Lisboa.
Wilson, K.L., Lizzio, A. and Ramsden, P. (1997) “The development, validation and application of course experience question- naire”, Studies in Higher Education 22(1), 33–53.