Pharmacy Students' Self-reported Health Behaviours and Spiritual Practices and Attitudes toward Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Keywords:Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), CAM attitudes, CAM use, health behaviours, spirituality
Objective: We explored if and how self-reported spiritual practices and health behaviours of pharmacy students correlated with
attitudes toward CAM, CAM use, recommending CAM and seeking CAM evidence.
Method: A secondary analysis of a cross-sectional survey of 437 pharmacy students at the Charles University in Prague in the Czech Republic was conducted using the validated CAM Health Beliefs Questionnaire (CHBQ).
Results: Overall cohort CHBQ mean score was 48.5 (maximum score=70) confirming positive beliefs/attitudes toward CAM irrespective of self-reported health behaviour and spiritual practices. Students with self-reported spiritual practices used twice as many CAM modalities (3.8 vs 2.1; p<0.001); were more likely to recommend CAM therapy to patients (4.6 vs 3.2; p<0.001) and provide them with CAM-related information (6.2 vs 5.3; p=0.021). Positive health behaviour correlated with more self-reported CAM use (p=0.040). No correlation was found between smoking status, regular exercise and CAM use.
Conclusion: Pharmacy trainee’s lifestyle and health behaviours may influence some of their patient care decisions about recommending CAM therapies.
Barnes, P.M., Powell-Griner, E., McFann, K., & Nahin, R.L. (2004). Complementary and alternative medicine use among adults: Untited States, 2002. Adv Data, 343, 1-19.
Büssing, A., Ostermann, T., Matthiessen, P.F. Role of religion and spirituality in medical patients: confirmatory results with the SpREUK questionnaire. (2005). Health Qual Life Outcomes. 10 (3), 10.
Robinson, A., Chesters, J., Cooper, S. People's Choice: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Modalities. (2007). Complementary Health Practice Review, 12 (2),
Dessio, W., Wade, C., Chao, M., Kronenberg, F., Cushman, L.E., & Kalmuss, D. Religion, spirituality, and healthcare choices of African-American women: results of a national survey. (2004). Ethn Dis, 14, 189-97.
Ellison, C.W. Spiritual well-being: Conceptualization and measurement. (1983). Journal of Psychology and Theory, 11, 330-340.
Giannelli, M., Cuttini, M., Da Frè, M., & Buiatti, E. General practitioners' knowledge and practice of complementary/ alternative medicine and its relationship with life- styles: a population-based survey in Italy. (2007). BMC Fam Pract, 8, 30.
Ironson, G., Solomon, G., Balbin, E., O'Cleirigh, C., George, A., Kumar, M., Larson, D., Woods, T. The Ironson- Woods Spirituality/Religiousness Index is associated with long survival, health behaviors, less distress, and low cortisol in people with HIV/AIDS. (2002). Ann Behav Med. 24, 34-48.
Lie, D., & Boker, J. Development and validation of the CAM Health Belief Questionnaire (CHBQ) and CAM use and attitudes amongst medical students. (2004). BMC Med Educ, 4, 2.
Lie, D., & Boker, J. Comparative survey of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) attitudes, use, and information-seeking behaviour among medical students, residents & faculty. (2006). BMC Med Educ, 6, 58.
Nahin, R.L., Dahlhamer, J.M., Taylor, B.L., Barnes, P.M., Stussman, B.J., Simile, C.M., Blackman, M.R., Chesney, M.A., Jackson, M., Miller, H., & McFann, K.K. (2007). Health behaviors and risk factors in those who use complementary and alternative medicine. BMC Public Health, 7, 217.
Petry, J.J., & Finkel, R. Spirituality and Choice of Health Care Practitioner. (2004).
J Altern Complement Med, 10, 939-945.
Pokladnikova, J., & Lie, D. A comparison of attitudes and beliefs and resource-seeking behavior for CAM among first and third-year pharmacy students in the Czech Republic. (2008). Am J Pharm Educ, 72(2), 24.
Stoskopf, C.H., Kim, Y.K., Schell, B., Glover, S.H., & Samuels, M.E. A Study on the Relationship Between the Use of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Therapies and Spirituality. (2000). Abstr Acad Health Serv Res Health Policy Meet, 17:UNKNOWN.
Underwood, L.G., Teresi, J. The Daily Spiritual Experience Scale: development, theoretical description, reliability, exploratory factor analysis, and preliminary construct validity using health-related data. (2002). Ann Behav Med. 24, 22-33.
Votova, K., & Wister, A.V. Self-Care Dimensions of Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use among Older Adults. (2007). Gerontology, 53, 21-27.
Williams, D.R. (1994). The measurement of religion in epidemiologic studies: problems and prospects. In: Levin JS, ed. Religion in Aging and Health: Theoretical Foundations and Methodological Frontiers. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.