An Exploration of How Students Learn in a Pharmacy Internship
Keywords:pharmacy internship, pharmacy practice experience, reflective practice, workplace learning, learning activities, semi-structured interviews
Background: The pharmacy internship introduces students to pharmacy practice. An understanding of learning processes in the internship is vital for educators in order to develop activities that support learning.
Aim: The aim was to analyse students‟ learning activities in a Swedish pharmacy internship from both students‟ and tutors‟ perspectives.
Method: Interviews with pharmacy internship students (n=17) and pharmacist tutors (n=18) were performed, followed by a qualitative analysis.
Results: The results showed that learning activities ranged from formal, organized activities to informal learning by participating in the professional community. There was a perceived lack of integration between formal and informal activities. Tutors and students acknowledged the influence of the context for learning and the importance of tutors for supporting learning.
Conclusion: Both formal and informal learning activities have to be accepted and made explicit. Integrating formal and informal learning activities, using the full continuum of possible learning activities, can enhance learning.
ACPE (2006) Accreditation standards and guidelines for the professional program in pharmacy leading to the Doctor of Pharmacy degree. The Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Inc. Available at http://www.acpe-accredit.org/ pdf/ACPE_Revised_PharmD_Standards_Adopted_Jan1 52006.pdf (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
Benner, P. (1984) From novice to expert. Menlo Park, CA, Addison-Wesley.
Billett, S. (2002) Workplace pedagogic practices; participation and learning. Br J Educ Stud, 50, 457-481.
Christiansen, F. V., Sörensen, E. W., Söndergaard, B., Rump, C. & Haugbölle, L. S. (2007) Bedömmelse af praktik i videregående uddanelser [Assessment of internship in higher education]. MONA, 54-69.
Colley, H., Hodkinson, P. & Malcom, J. (2002) Non-formal learning: Mapping the terrain, A consultation report. University of Leeds Life Long Learning Institute. Available at http://www.eses.pt/ip/ip/NonFormal_EducationMethods/ nonformaleducation/Non-formal%20learning.pdf (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
CU Studieophold på apotek [Pre-registration internship at pharmacy]. Det Farmaceutiske Fakultet, Köpenhamns Universitet Available at http://www.kursus.dfuni.dk/course/ category.php?id=8 (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
Droege, M. (2003) The role of reflective practice in pharmacy. Educ Health (Abingdon), 16, 68-74.
Eraut, M. (1994) Developing professional knowledge and
competence. London, The Falmer Press.
Eraut, M. (2000) Non-formal learning and tacit knowledge in
professional work. Br J Educ Psychol, 70, 113-136.
Eraut, M. (2007) Early career learning at work and it implications for universities. In Student Learning and University Teaching (eds. N. Entwistle & P. Tomlinsson) Leicester, BJEP Monograph Series II.
European Parliament and the Council (2005) Directive 2005/36/EC of the European Parliament and the Council of 7 September 2005 on the recognition of professional qualifications. 2005/36/EC. Official Journal of the European Union.
Felstead, A., Fuller, A., Unwin, L., Ashton, D., Butler, D. & Lee, T. (2005) Surveying the scene: learning metaphors, survey design and the workplace context. J Educ Work, 18, 359-383.
FIP (2000) FIP Statement of policy on good pharmacy education practice. International Pharmaceutical Federation Available at http://www.fip.org/files/fip/Statements/latest/ Dossier%20004%20total.PDF (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
Hammer, D. (2006) Improving student professionalism during experiential learning. Am J Pharm Educ, 70, Article 59.
Hammer, D. P., Berger, B. A., Bearsley, R. S. & Easton, M. R. (2003) Students professionalism. Am J Pharm Educ, 67, Article 96.
Hayes, D. (2001) The impact of mentoring and tutoring on student primary teachers' achievements: a case study. Mentoring & Tutoring: Partnership in Learning, 9, 5 - 21.
Hepler, C. D. & Strand, L. M. (1990) Opportunities and responsibilities in pharmaceutical care. Am J Hosp Pharm, 47, 533-43.
Kansanaho, H., Cordina, M., Puumalainen, I. & Airaksinen, M. (2005) Practising pharmacists' patient counseling skills in the context of reflectivity. Pharm Educ, 5, 19-26.
Katajavuori, N., Lindblom-Ylänne, S. & Hirvonen, J. (2005) Pharmacy mentors' view of practical training. Res Sci Educ, 35, 323-345.
Katajavuori, N., Lindblom-Ylänne, S. & Hirvonen, J. (2006) The significance of practical training in linking theoretical studies with practice. Higher Education, 51, 439-464.
Kvale, S. (1997) Den kvalitativa forskningsintervjun (InterWievs). Lund, Studentlitteratur.
Lave, J. & Wenger, E. (1991) Situated Learning. Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, University of Cambridge Press.
Lee, T., Fuller, A., Ashton, D., Butler, D., Felstead, A., Unwin, L. & Walters, S. (2004) Learning as work: Teaching and learning processes in the contemporary work organization. Learning as work research papers. Leicester, The Centre for Labour Market Studies.
Marsick, V. J. & Watkins, K. E. (2001) Informal and incidental learning. New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education, 2001, 25-34.
Miller, C. & Blackman, C. (2004) Interim report for nursing, the LINEA project. University of Sussex Available at http://
www.sussex.ac.uk/education/documents/linea_publication_3. pdf (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
Montgomery, A. T. (2009) Pharmaceutical care in Swedish community pharmacies - Studies of a counselling service [Doctoral thesis]. Department of Pharmacy. Uppsala, Uppsala University.
Plaza, C. M., Draugalis, J. R., Slack, M. K., Skrepnek, G. H. & Sauer, K. A. (2007) Use of reflective portfolios in health sciences education. Am J Pharm Educ, 71, Article 34.
Qsr (2008) NVivo. 8.0 ed. Doncaster, QSR International Pty Ltd.
Robson, C. (2002) Real world research. Oxford, Blackwell.
RPSGB Pre-registration Training. Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain Available at http://www.rpsgb.org.uk/ acareerinpharmacy/preregistrationtraining/ (Accessed 2nd December 2009)
Schön, D. A. (1983) The reflective practitioner: How professionals think in action. New York, NY, Basic Books.
Schön, D. A. (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner. San Francisco, CA, Jossey-Bass.
Short, P. M. & Rinehart, J. S. (1993) Reflection as a means of developing expertise. Educ Adm Q, 29, 501-521.
Säljö, R. (2000) Lärande i praktiken - ett sociokulturellt perspektiv [Learning in practice – a socio-cultural perspective.]. Stockholm, Prisma.
Sörensen, E. W. & Haugbölle, L. S. (2008) Using an action research process in pharmacy practice research - A cooperative project between university and internship pharmacies. Res Sci Educ, 4, 384-401.
Sörensen, E. W., Haugbölle, L. S., Herborg, H. & Tomsen, D. V. (2005) Improving situated learning in pharmacy internship. Pharm Educ, 5, 223-233.
UU (2006) Pre-registration training with pharmaceutical legislation Course description
Department of Pharmacy Available at http:// www.apoteksfarmaci.se (Accessed 1st December 2009)
Wallman, A., Kettis-Lindblad, Å., Gustavsson, M. & Ring, L. (2009a) Factors associated with reflection among students after an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in Sweden. Am J Pharm Educ, 73, Article 107.
Wallman, A., Kettis-Lindblad, Å., Håll, S., Lundmark, A. & Ring, L. (2008) Evaluation of a categorization scheme for assessing pharmacy internship students‟ level of reflection. Am J Pharm Educ, 72, Article 05.
Wallman, A., Kälvemark-Sporrong, S., Gustavsson, M., Kettis Lindblad, Å., Johansson, M. & Ring, L. (2009b) Learning for Professional Practice – Students‟ and Tutors‟ Perceptions of What Students Learn in an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience. Am J Pharm Educ, In Press.
Wenger, E. (1998) Communities of practice - Learning, meaning, and identity. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press.
Virtanen, A. & Tynjälä, P. (2008) Characteristics of workplace learning among Finnish vocational students. Eur J Voc Train, 2, 199-213.