The development of PILS scoring system for the assessment of teaching techniques
Keywords:Problem-base learning, learning style, case-construction study, self-learning and assessment
Objectives: To determine learning-style scores of final-professional pharmacy students before and after various teaching experiences and to evaluate the relationships between scores and teaching practice variables. The outcome of study was aimed to determine better teaching experiences to improve learning skills.
Method: The study was an observational cohort study design used for final professional pharmacy students. The Pharmacy inventory and learning style (PILS) model was employed for pre and post score after every teaching practice. Problem- construction practice (PCP) technique was developed and analyzed against other teaching practices.
Results: Research findings show significant increase in level of knowledge after each module of teaching the majority of students fall in high level of clinical knowledge with Problem-base learning (PBL) and Problem construction practice (PCP). Two domains of PILS (Enactor and Producers) significantly cross-over the other two domains with 17.6% and 5.9% of increase in post-result score. Findings also showed the increase characteristics of Enactor and Producers with PCP, compared with Producer and director in PBL practice.
Conclusion: The external environment (teaching style) has influence on the individual student learning behavior. For effective learning a variety of techniques were employed for the identification of EPI (educational personnel intellectuality).
Recommendations: PILS scoring model is a unique model comprises both cognitive (constructivism) and psychological concept.
Limitations: Currently the only limitation found in this research was absence of benchmark for teacher assessment.
Austin Z. What is learnworthy? Lessons from group socialization theory for professional education and continuing professional development. Am J Pharm Educ. 2002;2:161-166.
Austin Z. Development and Validation of the Pharmacists‟ Inventory of Learning
Styles (PILS). Am J Pharm Educ. 2003; 68 (2) Article 37.
Argyris, C. (1978) Organizational Learning: A Theory of action perspective. Reading MA: Addison-Wesley Publishing Company (Schon, D.A)
Belkin, G.S. and Gray, J.L. (1977) Educational Psychology: An Introduction. Dubuque Iowawm. C. Brown Publishers
Bruner, J. (1986) Actual minds, possible worlds. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University
Bruner, J. (1990), Acts of meaning. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press
Duncan-Hewitt WC. Problem-based learning and efficient research. Toronto: Faculty of Pharmacy; 1994:12-48.
Felder RM. Reaching the second tier – learning and teaching styles in college science education. J Coll Sci Teach. 1993;23:286- 290.
Grasha, A. F. (1996). Teaching with style: A guide to enhancing learning by understanding teaching and learning styles. Pittsburgh: Alliance Publishers (P-41)
HMELO, C.E. (1998). Problem-based learning: Effects on the early acquisition of cognitive skill in medicine. Journal of Learning Science, 10, 98 ± 100.
KAUFMAN, D.M. & MANN, K.V. (1997). Basic sciences in problem-based learning and conventional curricula: students‟ attitudes. Medical Education, 31, 177 ± 180.
Kolb DA. Learning styles and disciplinary differences. In Chickering, A., ed. The Modern American College. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass;1981:232-55.
Litzinger ME, Osif B. Accommodating diverse learning styles: Designing instruction for electronic information sources. In Shirato, L. ed. What is Good Instruction Now? Library Instruction for the 90s. Ann Arbor. MI: Pierian Press. 1993;1993:42-48.
MATSON, C.C., ULLIAN, J.A. & BOISAUBIN, E.V. (1999). Integrating early clinical experience curricula at two medical schools: lessons learned from The Robert Wood Johnson Foundation‟s generalist physician initiative. Academic Medicine, 74(1 suppl.), S53 ± S58.
Mohammed S. Chowdhury, Monroe College. (2006) Human Behavior In The Context of Training: An Overview Of The Role of Learning Theories as Applied to Training and Development. Journal of Knowledge Management Practice, Vol. 7, No. 2
Norman GR, Schmidt HG. The psychological basis of problembased learning: a review of the evidence. Acad Med. 1992;67:557- 565.
O‟NEILL, P.A. (2000). The role of basic sciences in a problem-based learning clinical curriculum. Medical Education, 34, 608 ± 613.
O‟NEILL, P.A., WILLIS, S.C. & JONES, A. (2002). A model of how students link problem-based learning with clinical experience through „„elaboration‟‟. Academic Medicine, 77, 552 ± 561.
Piaget, J. (1970) The Science of Examination and Psychology of the Child, NY: Grossman
Robbin, S. (1998) Organization Behavior. NJ: Prentice Hall Rogers, A. (2003) What is the Difference? A new critique of adult learning and teaching, Leicester, NIACE 85 pages
SWEENEY, G. (1999). The challenge for basic science education in problem-based medical curricula. Clinical and Investigative Medicine, 22, 15 ± 22.
Smith, R.M. (1982), How to learn: Applied theory for adults. Chicago: Follet Publishing Company
Vygotsky, L.S. (1978) Mind in society Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press