The development of PILS scoring system for the assessment of teaching techniques


  • Wasif Syed G. MClin. Pharm., Lecturer (Clinical Pharmacy), Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang
  • Azhar S. Sulaiman Pharm. D., Dean (School of Pharmaceutical Sciences), USM, Pulau Pinang, Penang
  • Norhayati Ismail PhD., Head of Department (Pharmacy), Island College & technology, Penang
  • Azmi Sarriff Pharm. D., Assoc. Prof (Clinical Pharmacy), School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, USM.
  • Yelly O. S. PhD (fellow) Clinical Pharmacy, School of Pharmaceutical sciences, USM, P. Pinang


Problem-base learning, learning style, case-construction study, self-learning and assessment


Objectives: To determine learning-style scores of final-professional pharmacy students before and after various teaching experiences and to evaluate the relationships between scores and teaching practice variables. The outcome of study was aimed to determine better teaching experiences to improve learning skills.
Method: The study was an observational cohort study design used for final professional pharmacy students. The Pharmacy inventory and learning style (PILS) model was employed for pre and post score after every teaching practice. Problem- construction practice (PCP) technique was developed and analyzed against other teaching practices.
Results: Research findings show significant increase in level of knowledge after each module of teaching the majority of students fall in high level of clinical knowledge with Problem-base learning (PBL) and Problem construction practice (PCP). Two domains of PILS (Enactor and Producers) significantly cross-over the other two domains with 17.6% and 5.9% of increase in post-result score. Findings also showed the increase characteristics of Enactor and Producers with PCP, compared with Producer and director in PBL practice.
Conclusion: The external environment (teaching style) has influence on the individual student learning behavior. For effective learning a variety of techniques were employed for the identification of EPI (educational personnel intellectuality).
Recommendations: PILS scoring model is a unique model comprises both cognitive (constructivism) and psychological concept.
Limitations: Currently the only limitation found in this research was absence of benchmark for teacher assessment.


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Research Article