Teaching ethics to pharmacy students using a team-based learning approach
Keywords:ethics, learning, pharmacy education, team-based, undergraduate
Background: Team-based learning (TBL) has been implicated in teaching different modules to pharmacy students, no studies have incorporated (TBL) in teaching ethics.
Aims. To utilize a team-based learning approach in teaching ethics in pharmacy practice to undergraduate pharmacy students. Method. The ethics section of a pharmacy practice course consisting of 11 contact hours was modified in to a team-based module consisting of initial individual and group readiness assurance tests followed by group application exercises.
Results. Faculty-student contact time was about the same for both the traditional method and the team-based method. Students rated the TBL sessions positively. Faculty time preparing for the course increased since it is the first time to introduce the course using this approach.
Conclusion. The approach has shown to benefit student performance in their assessments and to help in attaining skills of higher problem solving and application of knowledge. Students possibly acquired team-working and self-learning skills needed in the future.
Chung, Eun-Kyung, Rhee Jung A. E., Baik, Young-Hong, Oh -Sun, A. (2009). The effect of team-based learning in medical ethics education. Med Teach, 31,1013-1017.
Conway, S. E., Johnson, J. L., Ripley, T. L. (2010). Integration of team-based learning strategies in to a cardiovascular module. Am J Pharm Educ, 74(2), Article 35.
Gettman, D. A., Arneson, D. (2003). Pharmacoethics: A problem-based approach. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press.
Haidet, P., Richards, B., Morgan, R. O., Wristers, K., Moran, B. J. (2004). A controlled trial of active versus passive learing strategies in a large groups setting. Adv Health Sci Ed, 9(1), 15-27.
Hunt, D. P., Haidet, P., Coverdale, J. H., Richards, B. F. (2003). The effect of using team based learning in an evidence-based medicine course for medical students. Teach Learn Med, 15(2), 131-139.
Latif, D. A. (1999). Using ethical dilemma case studies to develop pharmacy students’ moral reasoning. J. Pharm. Teach, 7, 51-66.
Latif, D. A. (2000). The relationship between ethical dilemma discussion and moral development. Am J Pharm Educ, 64, 126-133.
Letassy, N. A., Fugate, S. E., Medina, M. S., Stroup, J. S., Britton, M. L. (2008). Using team-based learning in an endocrine module taught across two campuses. Am J Pharm Educ, 72(5), Article 103.
McCarthy, R. L. (2008). Ethics and patient privacy. Pharmacy Today, 14(11), 59-70.
Michaelson, L. K. (2002). Team-based learning in large classes. In Michaelson, L. K, Knight, A. B., Fink, L. D., (eds). Team-based learning: a transformative use of small groups (pp. 157-171). Westport, CT: Praeger.
Nieder, G. L., Parmelee, D. X., Stolfi, A., Hudes, P. D. (2005). Team-based learning in a medical gross anatomy and embryology course. Clin Anat, 18, 56-63.
Salek, S., Edgar, A. (2002). Pharmaceutical ethics. West Sussex, England: Wiley.
Self, D., Baldwin, D. Jr., Wolinsky, F. (1992). Evaluation of teaching medical ethics by an assessment of moral reasoning. Med Educ, 26, 178-84.
Self, D. J., Baldwin, D. C. Jr., Olivarez, M. (1993).Teaching medical ethics to first-year students while using film discussion to develop their moral reasoning. Acad. Med, 68, 383-385.
Self, D. J., Olivarez, M. & Baldwin, D. C. (1998). The amount of small-group case-study discussion needed to improve moral reasoning skills of medical students. Acad Med, 73(5), 521-523.
Smith, S., Fryer-Edwards, K., Diekema, D. S., Braddock, C. H. (2004). Finding effective strategies for teaching ethics: A comparison trial of two interventions. Acad Med, 79(3), 265-271.
Thompson, B. M., Schneider, V. F., Heidet, P., Levine, R., McMahon, K. K., Perkowski, L. C., Richards, B. F. (2007). Team-based learning at ten medical schools: two years later. Med Educ, 41, 250-257.
Veatch, R. M., Haddad, A. (2008). Case studies in pharmacy ethics. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.