Student-led Pharmacotherapy Based Case (PBC) Discussions; A Unique Approach to Teaching
Keywords:Top 200 drugs, student-led case discussion, WHO essential drug list
Objectives. Pharmacotherapy Based Cases (PBCs) are basic patient vignettes designed to highlight the appropriate use, dosing, and monitoring of a particular drug or drug class. We examined the effect of a student-led discussion of PBCs on students’ perceived confidence level regarding their knowledge of the Top 200 drugs in the United States.
Methods. Teams of two students received therapeutic drug categories to review from an organized list of the current Top 200 drugs. Faculty members provided sample tables and cases. Students created PBCs from their drug tables to facilitate discussion. PBC quality, summary tables’ content, and facilitation style were graded. Students completed baseline and post-PBC Likert scale surveys with questions about knowledge, usefulness of PBC approach and confidence level.
Results. The 2006 post-PBC survey results indicate that 100% find the PBC approach useful in the Top 200 drug review. The familiarity of the Top 200 drugs increased by 12%, 27%, 32% and 16% respectively for the following categories: 1) brand and generic names, 2) Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved indications, 3) contraindications and common side effects, and 4) special patient counseling information.
Conclusion. The PBC approach was recommended for future cohorts by 100% of students.
Angier, M. K., Lewis, R. J., Chaturvedi, A. K., & Canfield, D.V. (2005). Gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric differentiation of atenolol, metoprolol, propranolol, and an interfering metabolite product of metoprolol. J Anal Toxicol, 29(6), 517-21
Carroll, M. M., & Oliveira, M. A. 2006. Identification and design of novel teaching approaches that enhance the link between biochemical concepts and top 200 prescribed drugs. In American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy Annual Meeting (AACP 2006), Sheraton San Diego Hotel & Marina, San Diego, California, USA, viewed 10 December 2009, [Online] Available at: http:// www.allacademic.com/meta/ p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/1/9/1/2/ p119124_index.html [Accessed 10 December 2009]
Chisolm, M. A., Turner, J. C., Dipiro, J. T. (2005). Medicare- approved drug discount cards and prescription drug prices. AJHP, 62(14), 1482-1487
De Volder, M.L., De Grave, W.S., & Gijselaers, W. (1985). Peer teaching: academic achievement of teacher-led versus student-led discussion groups. Higher Education, 14, 643-650.
Haworth, I., Eriksen, S., Chmait, H. S., Matsuda, L.S., McMillan, P.A., King, E.A., Letourneau-Wagner, J., & Shapiro, K. (1998). A problem based learning, case study approach to pharmaceutics: faculty and student perspectives. Am J Pharm Educ, 62, 398–405.
Hersh, E. V., Pinto, A., Moore, P. A. (2007). Adverse drug interactions involving common prescription and over-the- counter analgesic agents. Clin Ther, 29, Suppl: 2477-97
Jafarov, A., Schneider, T., Waning, B., Hems, H., & Laing, R. Comparative table of medicines on the WHO essential medicines list from 1977-2005, [Online] Available at: http://www.who.int/entity/medicines/publications/ essentialmedicines/compar_table_who_edls.xls [Accessed 10 February 2011]
Jones, R., Higgs, R., de Angelis, C., & Prideaux, D. (2001). Changing face of medical curricula. Lancet, 357, 699- 703.
King, A. R. (2009). Gluten content of the Top 200 medications of 2008: A follow-up to the impact of Celiac Sprue on patients’ medication choices. Hosp Pharm, 44 (11), 984-992
Kremer, J. & McGuinness, C. (1998). Cutting the cord: student-led discussion groups in higher education. Education+ Training, 40, 44-49.
Nii, L.J., & Chin, A. (1996). Comparative trial of problem– based learning versus didactic lectures on clerkship performance. Am J Pharm Educ, 60, 162–164.
Pharmacy Times. (1979). 1978: Top 200 drugs-total number of prescriptions declines by 1.1%, but generics rise by 8.7%. Pharm Times, 45(4), 29-37
Schnall, J. G. & Levy, J. (2009). Essential Nursing Resources. Nurs Educ Perspect, 30(5), 318-327
Strand, L., & Morley, P.C., & Cipolle, R.J. (1987). A problem–based student-centered approach to pharmacy education. Am J Pharm Educ, 51, 75-79.
Varghese, L. & Lal, L. (2007). A retrospective analysis of patient-reported outcomes and other efficacy endpoints in the top band name product labels in United States. Value Health, 10(3), A188
WHO 2010, Essential Medicines WHO Model List, 16th edition (updated), [Online] Available at: http:// www.who.int/medicines/publications/essentialmedicines/ Updated_sixteenth_adult_list_en.pdf [Accessed 10 February 2011]
Woodman, O.L., Doods, A.E., Frauman, A.G., & Mosepele, M. (2004). Teaching pharmacology to medical students in an integrated problem – based learning curriculum: an Australian Perspective. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 25(9), 1195 -1203.
Zineh, I., Pebanco, G. D., Aquilante, C. L., Gerhard, T., Beitelshees, A.L., Beasley, B.N., & Hartzema, A.G. (2006). Discordance between availability of pharmacogenetics studies and pharmacogenetics-based prescribing information for the top 200 drugs. Ann Pharmacother, 40(4), 639-44