An investigation of pharmacy student perception of competence-based learning using the individual Skills Evaluation and Development program, iSED®


  • Susan J Allen De Montfort University
  • Jon Waterfield De Montfort University
  • Peter Rivers De Montfort University


Competence, iSED®, Skills, OSCE, Self-Regulation, Feedback


Background: The Objective Structured Clinical Exercise (OSCE) is the mainstay of clinical competence evaluation of healthcare professionals. The iSED® (individualised Skills Evaluation and Development) program, developed by Leicester School of Pharmacy, embraces various learning theories and was conceived to enhance the OSCE experience and facilitate students’ self-regulation in developing clinical competence.

Aim: To explore pharmacy students’ experience of using iSED® to develop clinical competence.

Method: Data were collected using a mixed methods study comprising an attitudinal Likert-style questionnaire, completed by second year MPharm students at Leicester School of Pharmacy, and focus groups with second year and third year students.

Results: Students expressed a positive perception towards iSED®, characterised by three emergent themes: ‘Visualisation and nature of feedback’, ‘Self-regulation and cyclical learning’, ‘Seeing yourself as others see you’.

Conclusion: Experience of iSED® supports clinical skills development through objective self-observation against a gold standard and facilitates understanding of individual learner identity. 

Author Biographies

Susan J Allen, De Montfort University

Senior Lecturer in Pharmacy Practice

Leicester School of Pharmacy

Jon Waterfield, De Montfort University

Principal Lecturer in Pharmacy Practice

Leicester School of Pharmacy

Peter Rivers, De Montfort University

Reader in Pharmacy Practice

Leicester School of Pharmacy


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Research Article