Perceptions on smoking cessation counselling competency among Malaysian pharmacy undergraduates: A preliminary study
Keywords:Competency, Malaysian Pharmacy Students, Practice, Perception, Self-Efficacy, Smoking Cessation Counselling
Background: There is a paucity of literature pertaining to smoking cessation counselling among Malaysian pharmacy students.
Aims: To assess pharmacy students’ perceptions from a private institution on their smoking cessation counselling competency. The relationships between constructs, namely self-efficacy, attitude, perceived ideal roles of pharmacists pertaining to smoking cessation counselling, practice activities and knowledge were also explored. The role of prior exposure to tobacco-related topics for selected constructs was determined. Lastly, students’ actual involvement in activities pertaining to provision of smoking cessation counselling was determined.
Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted whereby a 69-item questionnaire was administered to 140 pharmacy undergraduates to assess their perceptions on smoking cessation counselling competency which included self-efficacy, attitude, ideal role of pharmacists in providing smoking cessation counselling, knowledge and practice activities. Descriptive statistics, standard deviations and bivariate correlations were determined for all the constructs. The odds ratio were calculated to examine the relationships between the practice activities with other constructs. The mean differences, t-values, were determined to understand the role of prior exposure to tobacco-related topics for the selected constructs. The actual number and percentage of students’ involvement in activities related to smoking cessation counselling by their year of study were tabulated.
Results: A total of 137 students responded, of whom 77 from the final year and the remaining 60 from the third year. Generally, low scores were obtained for practice activities and knowledge. Self-efficacy and ideal role perceptions were significantly associated with the practice activities included in the questionnaire. The final year students, who had prior exposure to tobacco-related topics had significantly higher self-efficacy for smoking cessation counselling competency.
Conclusion: The low level of knowledge among the participants necessitates further training. Students with a minimal, approximately two-hour prior exposure to tobacco-related topics, demonstrated significantly higher self-efficacy. An implication of this study is that tobacco-related curricula focussing on smoking cessation counselling would be of value to future pharmacists in terms of their perceived competency as well as actual provision of smoking cessation counselling.
Aina, B.A., Onajole, A.T., Lawal, B. & Oyerinde, O.O. (2009). Promoting cessation and a tobacco free future: willingness of pharmacy students at the University of Lagos, Nigeria. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 5(1), 13,1-8.
Ashley, M.J., Brewster, J.M. & Victor, J.C. (2006). Pharmacists' smoking cessation practices: relationship to their knowledge and skills, attitudes, and perceptions of roles. Journal of American Pharmacists Association, 46(6), 729-737.
Bandura, A. (1993). Perceived self-efficacy in cognitive development and functioning. Educational Psychologist, 28(2), 117-148.
Brewster, J.M., Ashley, M.J., Laurier, C., Dioso, R., Victor, J.C., Ferrence, R. & Cohen, J. (2005a). On the front line of smoking cessation: pharmacists' practices and self-perception. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, 138(3), 32-38.
Brewster, J.M., Victor, J.C., Ashley, M.J., Laurier, C., Dioso, R., Ferrence, R. & Cohen, J. (2005b). On the Front Line of Smoking Cessation: Education needs of community pharmacists. Canadian Pharmaceutical Journal, 138(3), 26-31.
Brown, M.C. & Janke, K.K. (2003). Impact of an internet-based smoking cessation educational module on pharmacists’ knowledge and practice. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 67(4), 1-8.
Centers Disease Control & Prevention. (2012). Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) for the Public Health Preparedness and Response Core Competency Model. Centers Disease Control & Prevention, AHSP.
Corelli, R.L., Kroon, L.A., Chung, E.P., Sakamoto, L.M., Gundersen, B., Fenlon, C.M. & Hudmon, K.S. (2005). Statewide evaluation of a tobacco cessation curriculum for pharmacy students. Preventive Medicine, 40(6), 888-895.
Hudmon, K.S., Corelli, R.L., Chung, E., Gundersen, B., Kroon, L.A., Sakamoto, L. M., Hemberger, K.K., Fenlon, C. & Prokhorov, A.V. (2003). Development and implementation of a tobacco cessation training program for students in the health professions. Journal of Cancer Education, 18(3), 142-149.
Hudmon, K.S., Kroon, L.A., Corelli, R.L., Saunders, K. C., Spitz, M.R., Bates, T. R. & Liand, D. (2004). Training future pharmacists at a minority educational institution: evaluation of the Rx for change tobacco cessation training program. Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers Prevention, 13(3), 477-481.
Hudmon, K.S., Bardel, K., Kroon, L.A., Fenlon, C.M. & Corelli, R.L. (2005). Tobacco education in U.S. schools of pharmacy. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 7(2), 225-232.
Hudmon, K.S., Prokhorov, A.V. & Corelli, R.L. (2006). Tobacco cessation counseling: pharmacists' opinions and practices. Patient Education and Counseling, 61(1), 152-160.
Meshack, A., Moultry, A. M., Hu, S., & McAlister, A. L. (2009). Smoking cessation counseling practices of Texas pharmacists. Journal of Community Health, 34(3), 231-238.
Randhawa, S.S. (2015). 20,000 die yearly due to smoking. The Star Online. 24th April, 2015. Available at: http://www.thestar.com.my/news/nation/2015/04/24/ 20000-die-yearly-due-to-smoking-men-between-15-and- 24-form-majority-of-smokers-says-ministry/. Accessed 13th January 13, 2017.
Rollnick, S., Miller, W.R. & Butler, C. (2008). Motivational interviewing in health care: Helping patients change behavior. New York: Guilford Press.
Saba, M., Bittoun, R. & Saini, B. (2013). A Workshop on Smoking Cessation for Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(9), Article 198.
Schmelz, A.N., Nixon, B., McDaniel, A., Hudmon, K.S. & Zillich, A.J. (2010). Evaluation of an online tobacco cessation course for health professions students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(2), 36.
U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The Health Consequences of Smoking-50 Years of Progress: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.
Warren, C.W., Sinha, D.N., Lee, J., Lea, V. & Jones, N.R. (2013). Tobacco Use and Cessation Counseling Among Pharmacy Students. Journal of Behavioral Health, 2(1), 8-18.