Using a blended approach to support calculation skills of pharmacy students


  • Nicola Harrap School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Salman Usman School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Colin McLoughlin Formerly at Kingston University
  • Suzan Orwell School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Saleha A Harris School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Victoria Ling School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Tsz Ngan School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University
  • Asmaa Wadghiri Kingston University
  • Reem Kayyali School of Pharmacy, Chemistry and Life Sciences, Kingston University, Kingston upon Thames


E-learning, Pharmaceutical Calculation, Pharmacy Education, Students


Background: Pharmacy students are expected to demonstrate proficiency in pharmaceutical calculations and must achieve 70% in calculations in the General Pharmaceutical Council registration exam. Students value the flexibility, convenience and usability of technology enhanced learning.

Aims: To develop and evaluate a flexible resource to aid teaching and improve confidence and competence in performing pharmaceutical calculations

Method: A calculations e-package was designed. Evaluation of the e-package was completed via questionnaires and quizzes pre and post e-package release.

Results: The majority of students were very positive about the design aspects 74% (n=338) and impact of the e-package on future calculation competency (79% n=352). Results from 189 eligible students show significant improvement in scores after release of the e-package (p-value <0.001).

Conclusion: Significant improvement in students’ performance along with positive feedback regarding confidence and design of the package indicate the effectiveness of the e-package as an additional supporting strategy for calculation training. 


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Research Article