Current and former students’ views on two different methods of classroom-based teaching in pharmaceutical care: University of Namibia

Authors

  • Francis Kalemeera University of Namibia http://orcid.org/0000-0002-4320-5087
  • Ester Naikaku School of Pharmacy
  • Mwangana Mubita School of Pharmacy, University of Namibia
  • Dan Kibuule School of Pharmacy, University of Namibia

Keywords:

Clinical Pharmacy, Pharmaceutical Care, Case-Discussions, Didactic Sessions

Abstract

Background: Namibia is divided into 34 districts, each with a public hospital supplemented by a number of primary health care facilities. These hospitals shoulder the responsibility of ordering and distributing pharmaceuticals for the district as a whole. As the number of pharmacists in the public sector is quite low, staff often get engrossed in supply chain issues on the expense of pharmaceutical care. Namibia, cognisant of this challenge, established the School of Pharmacy, with one of the goals being to equip the students with knowledge and skills in the area of pharmaceutical care. So far two groups have gone through pharmaceutical care training: the 2014 and 2015 BPharm IVs. The 2014 group received classroom-based training through conventional didactic sessions, while the 2015 group was trained via case-discussions. The two groups were asked to comment on which of the two training methods was better for pharmaceutical care training.

Methods: We summarised the methods of classroom-based training as implemented in 2014 and 2015. We used a Focus Group Discussion with the 2015 group and telephonic discussion with individuals of the 2014 group. Individuals from both groups were asked if they would pursue a career in hospital-based clinical pharmacy. We used the Student’s T test to compare the proportions of students who reported wanting to pursue a career in clinical pharmacy, with the confidence level set at 95%, and the significance observed at a p-value ≤ 0.05.

Results: Summaries of the two methods were generated and used to explain the two methods to the respondents. All the respondents (n=9, 2015 group; n=10, 2014 group) said that the case discussion method was better than the conventional didactic sessions. The majority of the respondents (n=8, 89%) from the 2015 group said they would pursue a career in clinical pharmacy.

Conclusion: The case-discussions seem to be a better method for classroom-based training, when compared with the conventional didactic sessions. Even though the proportion of students considering building a career in clinical pharmacy was greater in the Class of 2015 than that in Class of 2014, we cannot conclude that the new method of training was the reason that underscored the difference. A more in-depth assessment is required to provide clarity on the relationship between the module delivery method and pursuing a career in clinical pharmacy. 

Author Biographies

Francis Kalemeera, University of Namibia

Lecturer, Head of Department, Department of Pharmacology

Department of Pharmacy Practice and Policy, School of Pharmacy

Ester Naikaku, School of Pharmacy

Assistant Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Policy

Mwangana Mubita, School of Pharmacy, University of Namibia

Lecturer, Department of Pharmacy Practice and Policy

Dan Kibuule, School of Pharmacy, University of Namibia

Lecturer, Head of Department, Pharmacy Pracrice and Policy

References

American Society of Hospital Pharmacists. (1993). ASHP statement on pharmaceutical care. American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy, 50, 1720–3.

Dodds, L.J. (2010). Drugs In Use. 1 Lambeth High Street, London SE1 7JN, UK. Pharmaceutical Press.

Koda-Kimble, M.A., Young, L.Y., Alldredge, B.K., Corelli, R.L., Guglielmo, B.J., Kradjan, W.A. & Williams, B.R. (2009). Applied Therapeutics: The Clinical Use of Drugs, 9th Edition.

Ministry of Health and Social Services: Namibia. (2013a). Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting 2013: Monitoring the 2011 Political Declaration on HIV/ AIDS.

Ministry of Health and Social Services: Namibia. (2013b). National Non-communicable Disease and Conditions (NCDCs) Programme, February 2013.

Molino, C. de G.RC., Carnevale, R.C., Rodrigues, A.T., Visacri, M.B., Moriel, P. & Mazzola, P.G. (2014). Impact of pharmacist interventions on drug-related problems and laboratory markers in outpatients with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management, 10, 631–639.

Nicole, R., Kalemeera, F., & Rennie, T. (2015). Implementing Clinical Pharmacy within Undergraduate Teaching in Namibia. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy, 37(3).

WHO. (1994). WHO Consultative Group on the Role of the Pharmacist in the Health Care System (online). Available at: http://apps.who.int/medicinedocs/ pdf/h2995e/h2995e.pdf. Accessed 30th September, 2015.

Published

24/09/2016

Issue

Section

Research Article