Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in assessing pharmacy students’ competence of asthma management in English and Arabic languages
Keywords:Assessment, Cultural Competence, Language Competence, Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE), Pharmacy Education
Introduction: Tools to assess knowledge, communication and clinical skill of pharmacy students providing linguistically competent patient care are needed. OSCE represents a well-established tool.
Objective: To develop an OSCE assessment of student skill in asthma management in English and Arabic, and to compare students’ performance in the OSCE to traditional assessments.
Methods: A blueprint was constructed to outline competencies, objectives, case scenarios, evaluations and logistics during OSCE assessments.
Results: All 120 enrolled students participated. Students achieved better average scores in OSCE assessments (74.1%) than end of semester final examination (68.6%) and overall course score (72.9%). Overall, students did better in communication-type questions and general assessments rather than individualised patient assessment. Students evaluated their experience and were mostly satisfied.
Conclusions: An OSCE assessment of students’ competence in asthma management administered in English and Arabic was introduced successfully. The assessment raised awareness towards introduction of Arabic language content to the curriculum.
Ahmadi, K., Ahmadi, K. & Imran, S. (2013). Practice of Pharmacy and Language Competency: Delivery of Integrated Cross-cultural Care. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 77(6), Article 134.
American Association of Colleges of Pharmacy (AACP). CAPE Educational Outcomes. (20013) (online). Available at: http://www.aacp.org/resources/education/Documents/ SocialandAdminDEC06.pdf. Accessed 22nd October, 2015.
Assemi, M., Cullander, C. & Hudmon, K.S. (2004). Implementation and evaluation of cultural competency training for pharmacy students. Annals of Pharmacotherapy, 38(5), 781-786.
Austin, Z., O’Byrne, C., Pugsley, J. & Quero Munoz, L. (2003). Development and validation processes for an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) for entry-to-practice certification in pharmacy: the Canadian experience. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 67(3), Article 76.
Austin, Z. & Dean, M.R. (2004). Development of a curriculum for foreign-trained pharmacists seeking licensure in Canada. Pharmacy Education, 4, 143–151.
Austin, Z., Marini, A., MacLeod, N. & Tabak, D. (2006). Peer mentoring workshop for continuous professional development. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(5), Article 117.
Benjamin, D.M. (2003). Reducing medication errors and increasing patient safety: Case studies in clinical pharmacology. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 43, 768–783.
Cultural and Linguistic Competency. (2011). US Department of Health and Human Services. Office of Minority Health (online). Available at: http:// minorityhealth.hhs.gov/omh/browse.aspx?lvl=1&lvlid=6. Accessed 22nd October, 2015.
Dameh, M. (2009). Pharmacy in the United Arab Emirates. Southern Med Review, 2, 15–32.
Gardner, S.F., Stowe, C.D., Hopkins, D.D. (2001). Comparison of traditional testing methods and standardized patient examinations for therapeutics. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 65(3), 236-240.
Hasan, S. (2008). A Tool to Teach Communication Skills to Pharmacy Students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 72(3), Article 67.
Hasan, S. (2011). Teaching ethics to pharmacy students using a team-based learning approach. Pharmacy Education, 11(1), 99–106.
Hasan, S., Suleiman, H., Stewart, K., Kong, D.C.M. & Chapman, C.B. (2015a). Patient expectations of and willingness to use primary care pharmacy services in the United Arab Emirates. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 23(5), 340–348.
Hasan, S., Stewart, K., Chapman, C.B., Hasan, M.Y. & Kong, D.C.M. (2015b). Physicians’ attitudes towards provision of primary care services in community
pharmacy in the UAE. International Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 23(4), 274–282.
Hughes, F., Barry, J. & Belaid, L. (2013). Development of an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) to assess formulation and extemporaneous dispensing skills in MPharm undergraduates. Pharmacy Education, 13, 7-14.
Mahboub, B., Santhakumar, S., Soriano, J. & Pawankar, R. (2010). Asthma insights and reality in the United Arab Emirates. Annals of Thoracic Medicine, 5(4), 217-221.
Meszaros, K., Barnett, M.J. & McDonald, K. (2009). Progress examination for assessing students’ readiness for advanced pharmacy practice experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73(6), Article 109.
Okoro, O.N., Odedina, F.T., Reams, R.R. & Smith, W.T. (2012). Clinical cultural competency and knowledge of health disparities among pharmacy students. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(3), Article 40.
O’Connell, M.B., Korner, E.J., Rickles, N.M. & Sias, J.J. (2007). Cultural competency in health care and its implications for pharmacy. Pharmacotherapy, 27(7), 1062-1079.
Salinitri, F.D., O’Connell, M.B., Garwood, C.L., Lehr, V.T. & Abdallah, K. (2012). An objective structured clinical examination to assess problem-based learning. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(3), Article 44.
Selbst, S.M., Levine, S., Mull, C., Bradford, K. & Friedman, M. (2004). Preventing medical errors in pediatric emergency medicine. Pediatric Emergency Care, 20, 702–709.
Shaya, F.T. & Gbarayor, C.M. (2006). The case for cultural competence in health professions education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 70(6), Article 124.
Smith, W.T., Roth, J.J., Okoro, O., Kimberlin, C. & Odedina, F.T. (2011). Disability in cultural competency pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 75(2), Article 26.
Sturpe, D.A. (2010). Objective structured clinical examinations in doctor of pharmacy programs in the United States. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(8), Article 148.
The Access Project. (2002). Heller School for Social Policy and Management at Brandeis University. What a difference an interpreter can make. Health care experiences of uninsured with limited English proficiency (online). Available at: http://www.hablamosjuntos.org/ pdf_files/What_a_Difference.pdf. Accessed 26th October, 2015.
Vyas, D. & Caligiuri, F.J. (2010). Reinforcing cultural competency concepts during introductory pharmacy practice experiences. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 74(7), Article 129.
Vess Halbur, K. & Halbur, D.A. (2008). Essentials of Cultural Competence in Pharmacy Practice. Washington DC: American Pharmacists Association.