Design and implementation of an integrated medication management curriculum in an entry-to-practice doctor of pharmacy program
Keywords:Clinical, Curriculum Design, Implementation, Integration, Medication Management, Pharmacy
Introduction: The design and implementation of the core patient care curriculum (medication management [MM]) in a new Canadian entry-to-practice doctor of pharmacy programme is described.
Curriculum Design: The MM curriculum was designed to span the first three years of the programme and comprise 75% of the programme’s coursework. The goal was to achieve "multi-disciplinary" integration of pharmaceutical and clinical sciences. Seventeen modules were created, within which medical conditions were the main unit of organisation. For each condition, the "elements" (or themes) most relevant for pharmacists to develop the knowledge and skills necessary for its management were identified. A quarter of curricular time was dedicated to integration activities (IA) created for students to elaborate and integrate their knowledge and demonstrate competency. The curriculum and IA incorporated a spiral progression of complexity and level of performance across year levels, guided by a programme- level cognitive model.
Evaluation: Approaches to overcoming challenges identified through pilot-testing, faculty, student, and stakeholder feedback are described.
Accreditation Standards for First Professional Degree Programmes in Pharmacy. (2012). Accreditation Standards for First Professional Degree Programmes in Pharmacy. Canadian Council on Accreditation of Pharmacy Programs (online). Available at: http:// www.ccapp-accredit.ca/site/pdfs/ university/CCAPP_ accred_standards_degree_2012.pdf. Accessed 1st March, 2016.
Association of Faculties of Pharmacy of Canada. (2010). Position Statement and Joint Resolution on the Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) for the First Professional Degree at Universities in Canada (online). Available at: http:// afpc.info/content.php?SectionID=4&ContentID=162& Language=en. Accessed 1st March, 2016.
APhA MTM Central. (2012). APhA MTM Central. (online). Available at: http://www.pharmacist.com/mtm. Accessed 17th February, 2016.
Australian Medical Council. (2012). Standards for assessment and accreditation of primary medical programs by the Australian Medical Council, Kingston, ACT: Australian Medical Council Limited (online). Available at: http://www.amc.org.au/files/d0ffcecda9608cf49c66c93a79a4ad549638bea0_original.pdf. Accessed 1st March, 2016.
Bandiera, G., Boucher, A., Neville, A., Kuper, A. & Hodges, B. (2013). Integration and timing of basic and clinical sciences education. Medical Teacher, 35(5), 381– 387.
Brady, C. (2015). Abstract 111: Facilitating Curricular Change: Preparing Faculty and Students for a Respirology Module in a Non-Modular Program (AACP/ AFPC Annual Meeting). Presented at the AACP & AFPC Annual Meeting, National Harbor, Maryland.
Brauer, D.G. & Ferguson, K.J. (2015). The integrated curriculum in medical education: AMEE Guide No. 96. Medical Teacher, 37(4), 312–322.
Bruner, J.S. (2009). The Process of Education, Revised Edition. Harvard University Press.
Case, R. (1991). The anatomy of curricular integration. Canadian Journal of Education, 16(2), 215–224.
Goldman, E. & Schroth, W.S. (2012). Perspective: deconstructing integration: a framework for the rational application of integration as a guiding curricular strategy. Academic Medicine, 87(6), 729–734.
Harden, R.M. (2000). The integration ladder: a tool for curriculum planning and evaluation. Medical Education, 34(7), 551–557.
Harden, R.M., Laidlaw, J.M., Ker, J.S. & Mitchell, H.E. (2009a). AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 7.: Task- based learning: An educational strategy for undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing medical education, Part 2. Medical Teacher, 18(2), 91–98.
Harden, R.M., Uudlaw, J.M., Ker, J.S. & Mitchell, H.E. (2009b). AMEE Medical Education Guide No. 7.: Task- based learning: An educational strategy for undergraduate, postgraduate, and continuing medical education, Part 1. Medical Teacher, 18(1), 7–13.
Hubball, H. & Burt (2007). An integrated approach to developing and implementing learning-centred curricula. International Journal for Academic Development 9(1), 51–65.
Liaison Committee on Medical Education. (2015). Functions and structure of a medical school: Standards for accreditation of medical education programs leading to the M.D. Degree (online). Available at: http://lcme.org/ publications/. Accessed 1st March, 2016.
Medication Management. (2012). (online). Available at: http://www.pharmacists .ca/education-practice-resources/ professional-development/medication-management/. Accessed 17th February, 2016.
Pearson, M.L. & Hubball, H.T. (2012). Curricular integration in pharmacy education. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 76(10), 204.