Qualitative Evaluation of a Cumulative Exit-from-Degree Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in a Gulf Context
Keywords:OSCE, Evaluation, Pharmacy Education, Medical Education
Introduction: Cultural adaptation of assessments into new contexts requires extensive evaluation to ensure validity of examination methods.
Aims: The study objective was to critically analyse a cumulative OSCE for graduating pharmacy students in Qatar from stakeholder perspectives.
Methods: Two focus groups were conducted with stakeholders to perform a SWOC (strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, challenges) analysis. Discussions were recorded, transcribed, and analysed for content using an inductive analytical approach.
Results: The content analysis resulted in 20 categories. Strengths included training, assessment practices, familiarity, standardisation, and satisfaction. Weaknesses included discomfort, assessment practices, exam organisation, and training. Opportunities included future licensure, regulator support, improvement, and standardised actor pool. Challenges included novelty, failure policies, specialised pharmacists, preparation of practicing pharmacists, collaboration, cultural differences, and OSCE overall scoring.
Conclusion: Adaption of a cumulative OSCE in Qatar is positively perceived by stakeholders yet opportunities exist to improve design and implementation within our context.
Abdelaziz, A., Hany, M., Atwa, H., Talaat, W. & Hosny, S. (2016). Development, implementation, and evaluation of an integrated multidisciplinary Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in primary health care settings within limited resources. Medical Teacher, 38, 272-279.
AFPC. (2010). Educational outcomes for first professional degree programs in pharmacy (entry-to- practice pharmacy programs) in Canada (online). Available at: https://www.afpc.info/sites/default/files/ AFPC%20Educational %20Outcomes.pdf. Accessed 29th June, 2016.
Al-Azzawi, A.M.J., Nagavi, B.G., Hachim, M.Y. & Mossa, O.H. (2016). The implementation and development of an objective structured clinical examination in the community pharmacy course of a select Gulf-region academic institution (Ras Al Khaimah College of Pharmaceutical Sciences): a pilot study. Innovations in Education and Teaching International, 53, 60-72.
Geisinger, K.F. (1994). Cross-cultural normative assessment: Translation and adaptation issues influencing the normative interpretation of assessment instruments. Psychological Assessment, 6, 304-312.
General Secretariat for Development Planning. (2008). Qatar National vision 2030 (online). Available at: http:// www.gsdp.gov.qa/www1_docs/ QNV2030 _English_v2.pdf. Accessed 29th June, 2016.
Ginsburg, S., McIlroy, J., Oulanova, O., Eva, K. & Regehr, G. (2010). Toward authentic clinical evaluation: pitfalls in the pursuit of competency. Academic Medicine, 85, 780-786.
Gronlund, N.E. (1998). Assessment of student achievement (6th edition). Boston MA: Allyn & Bacon.
Hambleton, R.K., Merenda, P.F. & Spielberger, C.D. (2005). Adapting educational and psychological tests for cross-cultural assessment. Mahwah NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.
Johnson, B., Pyburn, R., Bolan, C., Byrne, C., Jewesson, P., Robertson-Malt, S., El-Tawil, M. & Verjee, M. (2011). Qatar Interprofessional Health Council: IPE for Qatar. Avicenna, 2.
Karim, J.A., Marwan, Y.A., Dawas, A.M. & Akhtar, S. (2012). Self-confidence of medical students in performing clinical skills acquired during their surgical rotation. Assessing clinical skills education in Kuwait. Saudi Medical Journal, 33, 1310-1316.
Mahgoub, Y. & Qawasmeh, R.A. (2012). Cultural and Economic Influences on Multicultural Cities: The Case of Doha, Qatar. Open House International, 37, 33-41.
McMillan, J.H., Hellsten, L. & Klinger, D. (2007). Classroom assessment: Principles and practice for effective standards-based instruction. Boston, MA: Pearson/Allyn & Bacon.
Merriam, S.B. & Tisdell, E.J. (2015). Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
Permanent Population Committee. (2012). Qatar Population Statistics 2012: Three Years After Launching the Population Policy (online). Available at: http: //www.gsdp.gov.qa/portal/page/portal/ppc/PPC_home/ppc _news/ppc_files _upload/populations_status_2012_ en.pdf. Accessed 29th June,2016.
Evaluation of an exit-from-degree OSCE in a Gulf context 79
Raheel, H. & Naeem, N. (2013). Assessing the Objective Structured Clinical Examination: Saudi family medicine undergraduate medical students’ perceptions of the tool. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association, 63, 1281-1284.
Selim, A.A., Ramadan, F.H., El-Gueneidy, M.M. & Gaafer, M.M. (2012). Using Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) in undergraduate psychiatric nursing education: Is it reliable and valid? Nurse Education Today, 32(3), 283-288.
Srivastava, P. & Hopwood, N. (2009). A practical iterative framework for qualitative data analysis. International Journal of Qualitative Methods, 8(1), 76-84.
Swanson, D.B., Norman, G.R. & Linn, R.L. (1995). Performance-based assessment: Lessons from the health professions. Educational Researcher, 24(5), 5-11.
Thomas, D.R. (2006). A general inductive approach for analyzing qualitative evaluation data. American Journal of Evaluation, 27(2), 237-246.
Turan, S. & Konan, A. (2012). Self-regulated learning strategies used in surgical clerkship and the relationship with clinical achievement. Journal of Surgical Education, 69(2), 218-225.
Wiggins, G. (1989). A true test. Phi Delta Kappan, 70(9), 703-713.
Wiggins, G.P. (1993). Assessing student performance: Exploring the purpose and limits of testing. San Francisco CA: Jossey-Bass.
Zahid, M.A., Al-Zayed, A., Ohaeri, J. & Varghese, R. (2011). Introducing the objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) in the undergraduate psychiatric curriculum: evaluation after one year. Academic Psychiatry, 35(6), 365-369.