Developing a model for teaching and learning clinical pharmacy components of the pharmacy curriculum in Nigeria


  • Titilayo Oyelola Fakeye University of Ibadan, Ibadan
  • Rasaq Adisa University of Ibadan, Ibadan
  • Wilson O Erhun Obafemi Awolowo University


Clinical Pharmacy, Nigeria, Teaching, Learning


Background: Increasing clinical roles of pharmacists necessitate the need for adopting innovative teaching and learning methods that will enhance pharmacist’s clinical skills especially in developing countries.

Aim: To develop appropriate model(s) for teaching clinical pharmacy in Nigeria.

Method: The study consisted of focus group discussions (FGDs) with final year pharmacy students of a Nigerian university investigating their preferred methods for learning clinical pharmacy. The FGDs resulted in a 50-item questionnaire exploring appropriate models for teaching clinical pharmacy among the teachers. Data was evaluated using thematic analysis and descriptive statistics.

Result: Integrated and interactive active-learning teaching models were proposed in the FGDs. Models proposed included Direct Instruction (DI), Guided Design (GD) Cognitive apprenticeship (CA), Cooperative Learning (CL) and Problem-based learning (PBL) with clinical pharmacy teachers ranking them GD=DI>CA>>CL=PBL for teaching clinical pharmacy components

Conclusion: FGDs preferred low structure while the teachers preferred moderate to high structure of learning. 

Author Biographies

Titilayo Oyelola Fakeye, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

Reader/Assoc. Prof. - Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration

Rasaq Adisa, University of Ibadan, Ibadan

Clinical Pharmacy/Senior Lecturer - Department of Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administration

Wilson O Erhun, Obafemi Awolowo University

Clinical Pharmacy & Pharmacy Administartion/Professor - West African Postgraduate College of Pharmacist


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Research Article